Tim hieu che do XP cua Windows 7

Thứ bảy, 16 Tháng năm 2009, 07:31 GMT+7


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Tim hieu che do XP cua Windows 7 Windows 7 Release Candidate duoc phat hanh voi tinh nang co ten Windows XP Mode (XPM) lam nhung nguoi su dung Windows thuc su cam thay phan khich. XPM duoc thiet ke de cho phep nguoi dung tiep tuc chay cac ung dung chi co kha nang tuong thich voi he dieu hanh XP, do phan lon cac chuong trinh doanh nghiep muc dich rieng, khong the chay hoan hao voi Vista hoac Windows 7.

XPM giong nhu mot tinh nang de huy diet XP mot cach triet de bang cach thuyet phuc nguoi dung XP chuyen sang Windows 7 ma khong so su khong tuong thich.

Trong thuc te, ban beta cua XPM con rat nhieu van de can phai de cap den. Tuy nhien day moi chi la ban beta, chinh vi vay chung ta hoan toan co quyen hy vong se co su thay doi tu nay den phat hanh cuoi cung.

Tim hieu che do XP cua Windows 7, Phan mem ngoai, Vi tinh-Internet,

Trong bai nay, chung toi se gioi thieu cho cac ban cach cai dat XPM theo cach Microsoft khuyen khich, voi tat ca cac chu thich va nhung diem chua hoan hoa. Sau do chung toi se gioi thieu mot so meo va manh nho, dua tren kinh nghiem cua mot so nguoi dung, giup XPM lam viec tot hon – nhung van de ma Microsoft nen thuc hien cho ban. Cuoi cung chung toi se gioi thieu ve cach cac phien ban truoc day cua OS X tich hop lop tuong thich ma Microsoft chua lam duoc nhu vay.

Che do XP duoc gia dinh lam viec nhu the nao

XPM cho phep ban chay cac ung dung cu tren he dieu hanh moi bang cach thuc hien hai thu: Dau tien, XPM cho phep ban su dung mot phien ban Microsoft Virtual PC moi duoc cai thien de chay mot copy hoan chinh cua Windows XP trong mot cua so rieng – xuat hien mot cua so tren may tram Windows 7.

Thu hai, XPM cho phep ban cai dat cac ung dung vao ban copy cua Windows XP, giong nhu cach ban van cai dat chung trong cai dat XP truoc do. Dieu do co nghia rang ban co the chay cac ung dung do de dang tu may tram Windows 7 cu nhu the minh dang su dung cac ung dung Windows 7 chuan. Trong che do thu hai (goi la che do “seamless”) nay, ban khong thay Windows XP desktop ma thay vao do ban chi thay mot cua so co chua ung dung XP. Toan bo he thong Windows XP ao se chay an trong che do background.

Khi luu mot file nao do tu mot ung dung dang chay trong che do seamless trong XPM, file do se duoc luu mac dinh vao cung thu muc Documents ma ban su dung trong Windows 7. Tuy nhien ung dung seamless chay rat thong suot den noi ban co the luu hoac mo cac file tren bat ky o dia hoac thu muc nao trong cai dat Windows 7.

Du chay Windows XP Mode nhu mot cua so ung dung seamless hay mot may tram XP hoan chinh, ban hoan toan co the su dung clipboard cua Windows de truyen tai cac van ban va cac hinh anh giua Windows 7 va bat ky chuong trinh nao chay trong che do XP. Ban chi can copy hoac cat va paste giua hai chuong trinh dang duoc chay trong hai he dieu hanh nhu cach thuc hien giua hai chuong trinh dang chay trong mot he dieu hanh ma ban van quen su dung hien gio.

XPM duoc thiet ke de chay phan mem tuong thich voi XP chu khong phai cac phan mem tuong thich voi Vista. So nay gom co, cac phien ban cu cua phan mem Adobe, chang han nhu Acrobat 7, van lam viec tot trong XP va cac doanh nghiep thich duy tri no hon la nang cap sang phien ban moi ton kem hon. Cac san pham than thien voi XP khac ma Vista khong thich gom co cac ung dung PIM cu nhu Instant Recall, favorite ca nhan cua ban. Cac doanh nghiep co the khong muon mua phan cung moi – chang han nhu may in co cac driver XP nhung khong co driver cho Vista.

XPM co the chay bat cu phan mem nay ma Windows XP co the chay – chi ngoai tru mot so game co the phat hien ban dang chay trong mot may ao va tu choi khoi dong. Khong giong nhu cac phien ban Microsoft Virtual PC truoc day, XPM co the ho tro cho ca cac ngoai vi USB nhu cac camera, MP3 player va cac thiet bi di dong khac, may in va cac adapter mang khong day. Cung khong nhu trong cac phien ban truoc day cua Virtual PC (chi co the chia se cac thu muc nao do tren he thong “host”), XPM co the truy cap tat ca cac o dia va driver duoc su dung boi he thong Windows 7.

Bat dau voi Windows 7 XP Mode

De cai dat XPM, ban can ket hop dung phan cung va phan mem. Phan cung cua ban phai gom mot CPU va bo mach chu ho tro cong nghe ao hoa phan cung - Hardware Virtualization Technology, chang han nhu VT-d, AMD-V, hay Vanderpool. Neu bo mach chu duoc san xuat cach day chua den hai nam, ban co the hoan toan an toan ve van de do, tuy vay can phai tim tuy chon Hardware Virtualization trong BIOS cua may tinh va bat no. Neu ban khong chac chan he thong cua minh co ho tro cong nghe ao hoa nay hay khong, hay vao trang ho tro cua Microsoft va download, chay tien ich nhan dang CPU tu Intel hay AMD de biet duoc thong tin chinh xac. Cac trang do cung co the noi cho ban biet cach bat cong nghe can thiet nay trong cac BIOS chuan.

He dieu hanh cua ban phai la Windows 7 Professional, Windows 7 Enterprise, hoac Windows 7 Ultimate. Phat hanh RC hien hanh cai dat Windows 7 Ultimate, vi va phien ban RC chinh la phien ban ly tuong cho viec test XPM. Tiep den, ban can cai dat mot nang cap 5MB cho phien ban RC, nang cap nay ban co the tim tai tai day, noi ban co the download Windows Virtual PC.

Cuoi cung, tu trang nay, ban can phai download Windows XP Mode, dung luong bo cai khoang 445MB va khi cai dat len den 1GB. Ca hai download, can phai bao dam download dung phien ban 32-bit hay 64-bit, phu thuoc vao he dieu hanh Windows 7 ma ban dang su dung.

Buoc tiep theo la chay bo cai dat Windows Virtual PC, khi duoc nhac nho, hay khoi dong lai he thong. Sau do, ban cai dat Windows XP Mode. Bo cai dat se hien dien mot man hinh noi username cua XP Mode cua ban se la "user" (khong thay doi ten do) va nhac ban tao mot mat khau. Tren hop thoai tuong tu, ban hay tich vao hop kiem co nhan "Remember credentials (recommended)" de khong bi nhac nho danh lai mat khau khi XPM khoi dong. Hop thoai tiep theo se nhac ban bat tinh nang Automatic Updates, day la tinh nang ma ban nen bat de XPM tu nang cap ma khong can su can thiep cua ban. Cuoi cung, sau khoang 10 phut hoat dong background, mot may tram Windows XP ao se duoc mo trong mot cua so moi.

Tim hieu che do XP cua Windows 7, Phan mem ngoai, Vi tinh-Internet,

Co the ban se muon tuy chinh desktop va Start Menu cua he thong XP ao. Cho vi di, ban co the muon mo Control Panel, then Folder Options, va tab View, lam cho XP khong an cac mo rong cua cac kieu file duoc biet, chang han nhu cac file .DOC se hien thi trong Explorer voi duoi .DOC. Co the ban se muon mo Display Control Panel, vao "Appearance," sau do la "Effects," bat ClearType de dieu chinh phong chu man hinh.

Cung co the ban se muon cai dat may in de cac ung dung dang chay trong XPM co the in an den cac may in ma ban su dung cho Windows 7. Neu may in duoc gan boi mot cap USB, tat ca nhung gi ban can thuc hien o day la vao menu tren cung cua may ao, kich USB, sau do kich vao dong mau do "Attach", sau do la ten cua may in. XP se cai dat driver cho may in cua ban, khi do ban can phai cung cap dia cai dat driver di kem voi may in, hoac bang cach chay trinh duyet trong he thong XP ao, tim va download, sau do cai dat driver XP cho may in.

In an trong mang

Se kha de dang neu may in cua ban su dung cap USB de ket noi voi mang. Trong truong hop co mot may in duoc ket noi mang, ban se phat hien ra mot so van de ve cach lam viec voi may in. Nhu Microsoft da giai thich trong huong dan truoc day, ban can phai vao muc "Printers and Faxes" trong control panel cua he thong Virtual XP, kich vao "Add a Printer" de khoi chay wizard cai dat cho may in, sau do chon "Local Printer attached to this computer" (va huy chon hop kiem ben canh "Automatically detect and install my Plug and Play Printer"). Hop thoai Select a Printer Port xuat hien, khi do ban phai mo hop so xuong va chon mot trong so cac cong TS.

Danh sach cac cong deu duoc gan nhan tu "TS0001" tro len (TS co nghia Terminal Services, day la mot phan mem ma XP Mode su dung de truyen thong voi cai dat Windows 7). Mot trong cac cong duoc danh so nay se dan den may in Windows 7 cua ban – tuy nhien khong co cach nao biet duoc cong nao se dan den do.

Chi co mot thu ma ban co the va phai thuc hien do la chon mot trong cac cong TS, tiep tuc voi wizard, cai dat driver cho may in khi duoc nhac nho, sau do, khi den trang cuoi cung cua wizard, kich vao nut de in trang test. Neu trang test duoc in ra, dieu do chung to ban da chon dung so cong TS. Trong truong hop khong thay xuat hien trang in test, co nghia la ban da chon sai va can phai quay tro lai chon va lap lai qua trinh tren cho toi khi dat duoc trang in test. Co le o day Microsoft nen cung cap mot hop thoai cho phep ban chon may in theo ten thi se rat thuan tien cho nguoi dung. Tuy nhien chung ta hay cho doi, vi day moi chi lam ban beta cua Microsoft.

Trong Windows Explorer cua XPM, tat ca cac o dia tren he thong Windows 7 deu duoc liet ke cu nhu chung la cac o dia mang. Cho vi du, neu may tinh Windows 7 cua ban duoc dat ten la Roscoe, va ban co mot o dia E tren may tinh Windows 7, khi do no cung se xuat hien trong Explorer cua XPM nhung the hien la "E on Roscoe". Dieu nay khong thuan tien bang cach su dung kieu the hien truyen thong "E:" de chi thi o dia tren ca Windows 7 va XP, tuy nhien dieu do cung la kha tot, nhung thay doi ve hinh thuc se rat de dang. Neu ban la mot chuyen gia, ban se biet cach su dung tinh nang Map Network Drive trong Explorer de gan cac ky tu o dia thong thuong cho o dia ma XPM hien thi nhu mot o dia mang. (Khong nen thu neu ban khong biet va hieu cac thu tuc).

Sau khi co duoc nhung dieu co ban ve he thong, buoc tiep theo ban thuc hien la cai dat cac ung dung can su dung trong XPM. Chang han nhu chung toi da thuc hien cai Office 2003. (Office 2003 chay trong Vista, cac thanh phan cua Office 2003 va Office 2007 co the duoc cai dat tren cung he thong, tuy nhien phai khong he thong ao nhu XPM, con Outlook 2003 va Outlook 2007 khong the duoc cai dat tren cung mot may). Chung toi cung cai dat mot chuong trinh chuyen doi Word-to-HTML co ten HTML Transit.

O day chung toi da phat hien ra mot trong nhung tinh nang thuan tien nhat cua XPM: Khi ban cai dat mot chuong trinh trong che do XPM, shortcut chay chuong trinh do trong che do XPM seamless se duoc truy cap trong Windows 7 Start Menu, trong All Programs | Windows Virtual PC | Virtual Windows XP Applications. Dieu do cho phep ban chay cac ung dung nay mot cach thong suot ma khong can mo desktop XPM mot cach day du.

Dieu nay nghe co ve kha thu vi nhung nhung gi cam nhan thuc te lai khong han nhu vay. Cac shortcut cua Office 2003 xuat hien trong Windows 7 Start Menu, tuy nhien tro ngai ban dau ma chung toi gap phai la shortcut HTML Transit ma chung toi cung cai dat lai khong biet vi mot ly do nao do khong xuat hien o day. Tuy nhien cuoi cung chung toi cung da chi ra rang chi cac shortcut XPM tu dong duoc tao trong Windows 7 Start Menu la cac shortcut duoc tao trong XPM Start Menu cho tat ca nguoi dung – khong trong Start Menu cho bat cu nguoi dung rieng le.

Vi HTML Transit tao shortcut cua no trong XP Start Menu trong thu muc Start Menu cua nguoi dung ca nhan, khong phai thu muc All Users, nen shortcut cua no khong xuat hien trong Windows 7 Start Menu. De sua loi nay, chung toi da kich phai vao nut XP Start, chon "Open", "Programs" va keo shortcut HTML Transit tu thu muc Programs vao desktop XP. Sau do kich phai vao nut Start lan nua, chon Open All Users va keo shortcut vao trong thu muc All Users. Va shortcut se xuat hien trong Windows 7 Start Menu.

Mot ngac nhien nho trong Windows XP Mode la rang ban khong the keo va tha cac file giua desktop XP va desktop Windows 7.

Lam viec voi XP Mode

Khi da cai dat cac chuong trinh, ban hoan toan san sang su dung che do seamless cua cac ung dung XP. Dau tien, ban phai “hibernate” cai dat Windows XP bang cach vao menu Action cua cua so Virtual PC va chon Close. Luc do he thong XP se vao che do “hibernate” – day la mot buoc can thiet truoc khi che do seamless duoc khoi chay.

Luu y rang neu ban muon thay doi bat ky cac thiet lap co ban nao duoc su dung boi ung dung Virtual PC, chang han nhu so luong RAM cung cap cho he thong XP ao, ban se phai shut down – khong phai la hibernate – he thong XP ao. Ban co the thuc hien dieu do bang cach chon "Press Ctrl-Alt-Del" tu menu va chon "Shut Down". Sau do co the thay doi cac thiet lap bang viec kich chuot phai vao muc "Virtual Windows PC" tren Start Menu va chon Settings tu menu xuat hien.

Mot he thong XP dang o che do hibernate, de chay ung dung XP trong che do seamless, ban can phai mo Windows 7 Start Menu, kich dup vao ung dung XP ma ban muon chay, doi mot vai giay trong khi chuong trinh mo trong mot cua so tren desktop Windows 7. Truoc khi ung dung XP mo, ban phai dap tra nhac nho tu Windows 7 de chon xem khoi chay Virtual Machine hay Virtual Application; hay chon Virtual Application.

Lieu qua trinh co lam viec? Cau tra loi o day la co nhung khong thuc su tot nhu nhung gi no can phai dat duoc so voi mong muon.

Voi XPM, moi thu chay cham hon so voi nguyen ban trong Windows 7. Su truy cap vao cac file cham, cac hanh dong backup lam cham ung dung. Doi khi duong vien cua so khong xuat hien va sau do lai xuat hien tro lai khong mang tinh du bao. Dieu toi te nhat la toan bo cua so ung dung da khong xuat hien mang tinh lap lai tu desktop ma khong he co canh bao, co the noi la ngau nhien. Sau khi cho rang chung toi da mat nhung file soan thao gan day, chung toi da phat hien ra rang minh co the quay tro lai cua so voi tai lieu van mo cua minh mot cach don gian bang cach kich vao shortcut Word 2003 trong Windows 7 Start Menu. Tuy nhien doi khi chung ta phai dong Virtual PC tu Task Manager va khoi chay lai ung dung seamless, kien nhan doi khi no khoi chay. Tuy nhien chac han se co nhieu nguoi khong muon minh lap lai hanh dong nay lan nua.

Tham chi con toi te hon so voi viec su dung XPM cho cac game tren DOS; cho du ban co the chay cac game nhung chung se qua cham so voi no luc cua ban. Khong nen ton thoi gian cho dieu do – hay thu chay cac ung dung MS-DOS trong XPM voi hy vong chay toan man hinh nhu cach chung van chay trong XP. Ket qua thuc hien lai khong cho nhu vay va toc do van bi han che va khong the chay toan man hinh.

Viec bo lai nhung nguoi dung DOS ben ngoai lam mot van de nho, nhung mot van de dang phai nhac nho o day la rang tat ca cac tuy chinh ma chung toi da thuc hien mot cach can than trong khi chay desktop XP hoan chinh khong co bat cu hieu luc nao tren cac ung dung ma toi da chay trong che do seamless. Khong mang tinh truc giac nhung tai khoan nguoi dung chay he thong XPM khong giong nhu tai khoan nguoi dung chay cac ung dung XP seamless. Dieu do co nghia rang cac tuy chinh duoc tao trong he thong full XP khong anh huong den giao dien hien thi boi cac ung dung seamless, theo mot cach chinh xac thi cac tuy chinh duoc tao boi mot nguoi dung trong bat cu he thong XP hoac Vista nao deu khong co hieu luc tren giao dien cua mot nguoi dung khac tren cung he thong.

Cho vi du, chung toi da thay doi theme cua he thong ao full XP thanh Windows Classic – nhung duong vien cua so trong cac ung dung seamless cua toi van su dung theme Windows XP mac dinh. Da thiet lap Folder Options trong he thong ao full XP de hien thi cac phan mo rong cho cac kieu file da biet, nhung cac mo rong cua ten file van bi an khi su dung hop thoai File Open/Save trong Word 2003 trong che do seamless.

Tham chi dang ngac nhien hon la loi cua Microsoft khi giai quyet van de ngay sau khi cai dat Office 2003. Moi lan co gang shut down Word 2003 va chuyen tro lai full XPM desktop, ban se deu nhan duoc mot thong bao loi noi rang Customer Experience Improvement Program wizard van dang chay trong Word 2003 session. Nhung gi xay ra la Word 2003 da tu dong khoi chay nen wizard can hoi ban de join mot chuong trinh gui du lieu tro lai Microsoft ve cach ban da su dung Office nhu the nao. Vi che do seamless cua XPM khong cho phep wizard nay co duoc mot cua so de xuat hien ben trong nen khong co cach nao de lam cho wizard nay dong va bien mat, khong co cach nao de tat thong bao loi XPM.

Mot so meo chinh sua cho mot vai van de noi tren

Microsoft khong noi bat cu thu gi ve cac van de nay, ben canh do cung khong bao ban ve cach khac phuc chung, tuy nhien co mot so cach ban co the thuc hien. Phuong phap ma chung toi mo ta kha don gian nhung lai lam viec tot.

Dau tien, shut down ung dung seamless dang chay va khoi chay Virtual Windows XP de ban se lam viec trong he thong ao hoan chinh voi desktop XP trong mot cua so. Kich phai vao desktop, chon "New | Shortcut", khi duoc nhac nho ve vi tri cua muc, kich nut "Browse" va dieu huong den "Desktop" va kich OK. Dat ten shortcut la "Explorer XP". Tiep den, kich phai nut "XP Start" va chon "Open All Users"; mo thu muc "Programs", sau do keo shortcut Explorer XP moi vao no.

Kich phai va desktop, chon "New | Shortcut" va nhap "regedit.exe" (khong co dau ngoac kep) nhu vi tri cua muc; dat ten shortcut la "Regedit XP", keo no vao thu muc Programs ma ban da mo tu truoc. Dong cua so Programs va doi mot vai giay cho cac shortcut ma ban da tao duoc nhan ban tu dong trong start menu cua Windows 7. Sau do tu menu tren cung cua cua so Virtual Windows XP, chon "Action | Close".

Start Menu cua Windows 7 cua ban luc nay se co mot shortcut co ten Explorer XP (Virtual Windows XP) va Regedit XP (Virtual Windows XP). Khi ban khoi chay bieu tuong Explorer XP (Virtual Windows XP), no se mo Windows XP Explorer trong he thong Virtual XP cua ban; neu ban kich "My Computer" trong phan panel ben trai, sau do "Control Panel", ban se co the truy cap vao bat cu tinh nang giao dien nao su dung cho cac ung dung seamless.

Khi khoi chay bieu tuong Regedit XP (Virtual Windows XP), no se chay mot ban copy cua Regedit voi tai khoan chay cac XPM session voi tu cach nguoi dung hien hanh Current User.

Viec thiet ke mot che do mo phong cho mot he dieu hanh cu khong de dang nhung van co the thuc hien. Quay tro lai cach day khong lau, khi Apple thiet ke mot lop tuong thich XPM cho OS X mang ten "Classic Mode" de OS X co the chay cac ung dung duoc viet cho OS 9 va cac phien ban truoc do cua Mac OS, Apple da thuc hien dung moi thu ma Microsoft chua thuc hien duoc voi XPM. Classic Mode cua Apple rat hop voi OS X. Co mot so thu the hien su thich hop do nhu ban khong can phai nhay tu noi nay sang noi kia de chon mot may in hoac tim cac file nao do.

Ket luan

Co the co mot so van de voi che do XP Mode, tuy nhien chung ta can phai hieu no van dang trong ban beta, chinh vi vay Microsoft co the nhan cac phan hoi tu phia nguoi dung va dua ra nhung thay doi cuoi cung sao cho phu hop nhat. Ve phia cac ban, neu cac ban da dung thu che do nay va phat hien ra mot dieu gi do, hay comment de chung ta co mot cong dong tin tuc thu vi.

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(Theo VNN, PCMag, QtriMang)

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