Chuyen hau truong it ai biet ve iPhone

Thứ hai, 10 Tháng một 2011, 18:24 GMT+7

iPhone la san pham dien thoai dau tien cua Apple va ngay lap tuc gat hai thanh cong. Vi sao Apple lai “nhay” vao linh vuc DTDD, va lam the nao ho co the “kin nhu bung” ve mot san pham nhu vay?

Chuyen hau truong it ai biet ve iPhone
Nguoi dan My xep hang tu dem hom truoc de cho mua iPhone
“Day la ngay toi da mong doi tu hon hai nam ruoi qua”, Steve Jobs, CEO cua Apple noi tai su kien Macworld Expo ngay 9/1/2007.

Trong ngay 9/1/2007 do, Steve Jobs da tuyen bo doi ten cong ty, bo tu “Computer” va doi ten tu Apple Computer Inc thanh Apple Inc – nhu vay, may tinh khong con la moi tap trung duy nhat cua Apple nua. Va dung ngay hom do, Steve Jobs chinh thuc cong bo voi ca the gioi ve iPhone, dua ten tuoi Apple vao “lanh dia” DTDD.

iPhone duoc giu bi mat nhu the nao?

Mot trong nhung cau hoi thu vi ve iPhone la lam the nao Apple giu bi mat ve san pham trong suot gan 2 nam ruoi phat trien san pham.

Ngoai viec lien quan den cac doi tac nhu Cingular, Google va Yahoo, chua ke nha san xuat, du an nay tiep xuc voi hau nhu moi phong ban bo phan trong Apple. Vi the, du rat noi tieng bao ve san pham moi, song Apple cung gap nhieu thach thuc khi giu bi mat ve iPhone trong 30 thang. Hang da tuyen bo ro rang voi cac nhan vien va doi tac rang ho se bi sa thai va co the bi kien neu lam ro ri bi mat. Apple cung “manh tay”, kien cac blogger va cac nha bao tu do khac vi dang tai bat ky thong tin ve nhung san pham chua cong bo cua Apple.

Trong suot qua trinh, Jobs luon giu bi mat cao nhat ve san pham. Trong noi bo nhom ky su, du an ve iPhone mang ten P2, viet tat cua tu Purple 2. Cac ky su trong du an P2 cung khong lam viec tap trung ma rai rac de giu bi mat. Khi cac nha quan tri Apple den Cingular de lam viec, ho xung danh la nhan vien cua Infineo, cong ty ma Apple dung de san xuat bo phan truyen tin hieu dien thoai. Tham chi, nhom ky su phan cung va phan mem cua iPhone cung khong duoc gap nhau. Nhom phan cung lam ve he thong mach dien va thu tren phan mem gia. Apple co tinh xay dung nhung phan mem gia mao, de ngan khong cho cac nha lap trinh nhin thay giao dien thuc cua san pham.

Mac du cac ung dung cua ho la phan rat quan trong voi iPhone, song ca Yahoo va Google deu chua he nhin thay chiec dien thoai thuc su cho den truoc khi Jobs cong bo iPhone tai Macworld. Thang 1/2007, khi Jobs cong bo iPhone tai Macworld, chi khoang 30 lanh dao cap cao ve du an P2 biet ve iPhone.

Chuyen hau truong it ai biet ve iPhone
Vi sao iPhone thanh cong?

Thuc chat, cuoc choi DTDD khong he de voi Apple. “De che” DTDD da co rat nhieu cac nha san xuat dien thoai va cung cap dich vu bao vay. Nhung mang kinh doanh DTDD hap dan Jobs vi chung co the lam hau nhu moi nhiem vu goi, nhan tin, luot web, quan ly danh ba, nghe nhac, anh, video – nhung chung thuc hien cac nhiem vu tren rat kem, buoc nguoi dung phai bam rat nhieu nhung phim nho li ti va giao dien dieu huong hon tap, man hinh nho xiu. “Moi nguoi ghet chiec dien thoai cua ho”, Jobs noi. “Dieu do khong hay chut nao”. Va do chinh la co hoi. Duoi con mat hoan hao cua Jobs, dien thoai luc do chang la gi ca. Ong thich dieu do, vi no co nghia la ong co the tao ra mot cai gi do hoan hao va ban ra voi muc gia tot hon.

Theo cac nha phan tich, iPhone thanh cong mot phan vi khong giong hau het cac cong ty khac, Apple tu san xuat phan cung, phan mem va thiet ke. Khi tat ca moi thu xuat phat tu mot nguon, san pham se la su hoi tu cua mot chien luoc dong nhat, hiep luc, san sinh ra nhung dieu ky dieu.

iPhone cung se khong thanh cong neu Apple khong co thai do kenh kieu “chung toi la dac biet”. Theo cac nha phan tich, mot ly do han che nha san xuat sang tao la cac nha mang luon dat ra nhung nguyen tac cung nhac buoc nha san xuat phai tuan theo. Nha mang yeu cau tat ca DTDD phai chay theo mot cach giong nhau. “Noi that la thai do do rat xac xuoc, kieu cang khi nha mang nghi rang ho hieu biet hon”, Jobs noi. “Ho chi ra nhung gi phai co tren dien thoai. Dieu do khong hop voi chung toi vi chung toi muon sang tao”. Jobs da dat ra nhung doi xu dac biet cho mang di dong ban chiec iPhone cua Apple, va AT&T chap nhan. Thuc ra, Jobs cung tung gap go Verizon de ra cac “yeu sach” phan phoi iPhone, nhung Verizon ngay lap tuc tu choi ong.

Chien luoc cua AT&T (ngay do la Cingular), cung nhu cac nha mang khac, la keu goi khach hang su dung DTDD nhieu hon va truy cap web nhieu hon. Song moi thu dang kho khan hon, nguoi dung thoai it hon, canh tranh gia manh thu hep ty suat loi nhuan. Thach thuc lon nhat cua cac nha mang khong phai la thu hut khach hang moi, ma la “cuop” khach hang tu nha mang khac. Cingular muon co mot thiet bi “must-have” ma cac mang khac khong co. Va nhu vay, co gi tot hon iPhone?

Sau khoang 1,5 nam hop kin, cuoi cung Jobs va AT&T da dat thoa thuan phan phoi iPhone doc quyen. Jobs da “du” AT&T chi hang trieu USD va hang ngan nhan luc, thoi gian vao viec dao tao ky nang ban hang va cac tinh nang cua iPhone. Apple nam quyen luc toi da ve khau thiet ke, san xuat va tiep thi iPhone.

Truoc day chua bao gio xay ra “dieu nguoc lai” nhu vay. Stanley Sigman, Chu tich kiem CEO cua AT&T, thua nhan iPhone la mot truong hop chua co tien le. Nhung ong cung to ra hieu biet ve nhung doc dao trong vu Apple. “Toi nghi van de quan trong la su san sang va kha nang hop tac cung nhau, de AT&T van la AT&T va Apple van la Apple”, ong noi. “Chung toi cung co moi quan he tot voi cac nha san xuat khac. Nhung ong (Jobs) da mang lai mot san pham di truoc thoi dai nhieu nam”. That thu vi de xem cac nha san xuat khac canh tranh ra sao voi iPhone, khi khong co cong nghe man hinh cam ung cua Apple. Apple da dang ky khoang 200 ban quyen cong nghe lien quan den iPhone.

Duong nhu voi iPhone, ly le “tai nguoi dung” da khong con nua. Boi vi khi may moc cua chung ta khong hoat dong, chung ta thuong trach ban than minh qua ngu ngoc hoac khong doc ky huong dan su dung hoac co nhung ngon tay qua to beo, ma khong nghi rang do la do chinh ban than san pham qua phuc tap, do nha san xuat khong sang tao.

Tat nhien, ngoai cac yeu to tren, phai ke den nghe thuat marketing cua Apple. Nghe thuat xay dung thuong hieu chinh la mot trong nhung yeu to mang lai thanh cong cho Apple. Va Apple la hang da co lich su ve thu nghe thuat nay tu truoc, chu khong phai doi den “thoi iPhone”. Vao nhung nam cuoi thap ky 80 va dau 90, John Sculley, mot chuyen gia marketing cua hang Pepsi, da dau quan cho Apple va bien Apple thanh hang may tinh lon nhat the gioi, voi muc doanh thu hang nam dat 11 ty USD. Sculley da “dien cuong” quang ba Apple, nang ngan sach quang cao tu 15 trieu USD len 100 trieu USD. “Moi nguoi noi ve cong nghe, nhung Apple la mot cong ty marketing”, Sculley noi. “Do la mot cong ty marketing cua the ky”.

Manh Hung Theo ICTnews

Cac bai viet khac:

Tiep theo >>


^ Lên đầu trang ^


Copyright © 2006-2012 by VietBao.vn
Viet Bao Viet Nam - All Rights Reserved.