10 loi khuyen cho nguoi moi bat dau hoc PHP

Thứ bảy, 23 Tháng mười 2010, 13:00 GMT+7


10 loi khuyen cho nguoi moi bat dau hoc PHP 10 loi khuyen cho nguoi moi bat dau hoc PHP PHP la ngon ngu dang sau mot so ung dung web manh me va pho bien nhat hien nay, trong do co the ke den Facebook va WordPress.

Hoc mot ngon ngu moi co the kha kho khan voi nhieu nguoi. Bai viet nay gioi thieu voi ban doc mot so loi khuyen quy bau cua cac chuyen gia PHP danh cho nguoi moi buoc chan vao the gioi PHP.

10 loi khuyen cho nguoi moi bat dau hoc PHP, Tin tuc trong ngay, 10 loi khuyen cho nguoi hoc PHP, 10 loi khuyen, PHP, vi tinh, internet, Python, ung dung web, Facebook, WordPress

1. Elizabeth Naramore: Bat dau voi OOP

Naramore hien dang la nhan vien cua SourceForge va nguoi sang lap trang PHPWomen.org. Doi voi nguoi vua moi bat dau hoc PHP, Naramore cho rang nen co mot nen tang vung chac trong viec lap trinh huong doi tuong (OO) truoc khi tim hieu sau hon vao PHP.

"Neu ban von khong xuat than tu linh vuc lap trinh, hay danh thoi gian de tim hieu nguyen tac can ban cua phat trien phan mem. Nhung van de can chu y nhu lap trinh huong doi tuong (OOP), phat trien huong kiem thu (test driven development), quan li phien ban (version control), go loi (debugging), cac mau thiet ke (design pattern), vv).

"Neu ban da thu va khong the giai quyet van de cua ban, dung ngai hoi. Cac cong dong PHP noi chung rat huu ich va than thien. Co vo so tai nguyen cho nhung nguoi moi tren mang. Nho den su tro giup cua cong dong, cho du do la mot nhom nguoi dung dia phuong, mot du an ma nguon mo cua cong dong, hay mot kenh IRC nhu #phpc tren freenode".

2. Keith Casey: Hay Google truoc khi hoi

Casey la chu cua mot cua hang ban phan mem va la mot dien gia rat co tieng trong cac cuoc hoi thao lon ve PHP.

Loi khuyen cua ong nhan manh viec hay biet minh dang o dau trong cong dong PHP cung voi mot cau cham ngon dang ngay cang tro nen quan trong: Google truoc khi hoi.

"Hay tham gia ngay vao mot nhom nguoi dung PHP (PHP User\'s Group). Co vo so nhom nguoi dung PHP o moi noi tren the gioi. Do la noi nhung nguoi thong minh tap hop de thao luan, kham pha nhung y tuong, va giup do lan nhau.

"Hay nho thu tim kiem tren Google truoc khi dat cau hoi. Chang co ai thich nhung ke luoi bieng ca".

3. Eamon Leonard: Tham gia cac du an ma nguon mo

Leonard dieu hanh mot cong ti phan mem dat tai Ireland va la dong sang lap CloudSplit, mot dich vu phan tich thoi gian thuc cho cong nghe dien toan dam may. Giong nhu nhieu dong nghiep cua minh, ong khuyen rang hay co gang tham gia cac du an ma nguon mo ngay ca khi moi bat dau hoc PHP.

"Hay tham gia vao cac du an ma nguon mo ngay sau khi ban nam bat duoc cac van de co ban... Viec nay khien ban co the truy cap vao ma nguon cua cac du an va la mot co hoi rat lon de hoc hoi tu cac chuyen gia ki cuu trong nganh".

"Tim va lap tai lieu cho cac loi co the tai phat sinh la mot nhiem vu rat ton thoi gian va duoc danh gia cao boi bat ky nhom phat trien ma nguon mo nao... Khi thue cac nha phat trien de lam viec voi chung toi, chung toi se danh nhieu su uu ai hon cho nhung ai da tung lam viec tren mot du an phan mem ma nguon mo".

4. Lorna Jane Mitchell: Hay bat tay vao lam (Just do it)

"Lornajane" la ten goi pho bien hon cua Mitchell tren cong dong truc tuyen, la mot nha co van, nha phat trien phan mem, mot tac gia va dien gia ve PHP.

Co dua ra mot loi khuyen kha noi tieng trong gioi chuyen mon: Hay bat tay vao lam (Just do it).

"Muon biet boi thi phai nhay xuong nuoc! PHP la mot ngon ngu rat de hoc. Cach tot nhat de tim hieu xem cai gi do hoat dong nhu the nao la bat tay vao lam thu.

"Bat cu ai cung co the lap trinh PHP. It kho khan khi tham gia co nghia la co rat nhieu code PHP toi tren the gioi. Nhung nhung doan code PHP toi ma chay tot thi cung van huu ich. Ca nhan toi nghi rang neu ban co the giai quyet van de cua ban voi PHP thi cu manh dan bat tay vao code ngay ca khi no chua hoan hao".

5. Chris Cornutt: Tranh nhung doan code roi ram

Cornutt dieu hanh PHPDeveloper.org va Joind.in. Ong da bat dau lap trinh PHP tu nam 1998. Trong loi khuyen cua ong danh nhung nguoi moi bat dau phat trien PHP, ong canh bao ve nhung doan code roi ram.

"Toi nghi rang nhung phat trien moi se de dang bi chan nan voi nhung doan code roi ram, dau dau... Nhung nguoi moi bat dau va co mot chut thich thu voi ngon ngu PHP thuong rat hang hai viet code voi tam li la chi can code chay duoc la duoc, nhung toi dam chac rang hon mot nua trong so ho se bo cuoc".

"Hay thu tim mot nguoi co van co the huong dan ban mot so buoc di ban dau. Ban se cam nhan duoc mot su khac biet rat lon khi ban co mot nguoi nao do de ban luan. IRC la mot lua chon tot, nhung mot nguoi de co the gap mat de hoc hoi se tot hon rat nhieu.

Thuong ho co rat nhieu cac trang web voi vo so cac doan code va cac vi du PHP da giup ho vuot qua nhung tinh huong kho khan. Mot so vi du rat hay, mot so khong co ich nhieu lam nhung hay hoc chung mot cach dan dan. Phat trien PHP cung giong nhu bat cu dieu gi khac, la mot ky nang ma can phai duoc mai giua ban khong the nhay bup vao va tro thanh mot chuyen gia sau mot dem duoc".

6. Abraham Williams: Hoc Drupal

Williams la mot nha phat trien va tu goi minh la mot "nguoi ung ho cac hacker" (hacker advocate). Ong cung khuyen nhung nguoi moi lap trinh PHP nen tham gia vao cac du an lap trinh ma nguon mo.

"Tim mot du an hoac cong dong chat luong (tot nhat la cac du an phat trien theo dinh huong ma nguon mo) de dong gop vao. Tim hieu ve cac doan ma, con nguoi va van hoa rieng cua du an do. Ban se hoc hoi duoc tu cac nha phat trien co kinh nghiem, niem dam me voi nhung doan code chat luong cung voi mot cong dong than thien. Nhung nguoi moi se nhan duoc nhieu hon tu viec de xuat cac doan code cai tien trong cac ban va va tham chi tu viec lam the nao de la mot thanh vien cong dong tot hon".

"Toi cho rang cac du an Drupal la mot diem khoi dau tot. Do la mot cong dong truong thanh va hung hau, co toc do tang truong manh me. Ngoai ra, co rat nhieu co hoi viec lam doi voi cac nha phat trien Drupal gioi".

7. Demian Turner: Hoc hoi tu cac coder nhieu kinh nghiem

Turner da lam viec voi cac web va cac du an ma nguon mo tu nam 1996. Ong dieu hanh PHPKitchen.com va gan day la mot trong nhung nguoi lot vao chung ket cuoc thi doanh nhan khoi nghiep Seedcamp.

Ong da dua ra mot loi khuyen vo cung quy bau cho nhung nguoi moi phat trien PHP de tiet kiem thoi gian, cai thien cac doan code tot hon va giup duy tri duoc su yeu thich viet code.

"Doc cac code cua cac nha phat trien day dan kinh nghiem. Do luon la nhung cach tot hon, sang sua hon de giai quyet cac van de ban gap phai. Dung phat minh lai banh xe, ban se luon co thua cac cong cu, thu vien san co de lap trinh. Hay su dung cac thu vien co uy tin bat cu khi nao ban co the thay vi tu viet code tu dau".

"Dam bao rang code cua ban that de hieu. Neu chinh ban cung khong the hieu duoc code ma ban viet ra sau sau thang sau thi lam sao cac nha phat trien khac co the hieu noi?".

"Luon co gang don gian hoa cac doan code. Se vat va hon de viet cac doan code don gian hon nhung mot cau truc code nhat quan se giup ban tiet kiem rat nhieu thoi gian va cong suc hon khi phai bao tri".

"Cuoi cung, tim hieu ve mot so cac lap trinh vien xuat sac va cach lam the nao ho giu duoc niem dam me ve nghe thuat lap trinh trong nhieu nam nhu vay".

8. Stuart Herbert:

Tim hieu ve phat trien huong kiem thu (test-driven development), tinh dong goi (encapsulation) va quan li ma nguon (source control)

Herbert da bat dau code PHP ke tu nam 1999. Ong da viet ve PHP trong nhieu nam va da dong gop rat nhieu cho Gentoo Linux.

Doi voi nhung nguoi phat trien PHP, ong khuyen "Hay tim hieu ve viec phat trien huong thu nghiem va dong goi. Mot khi hieu ve no, ban se viet code nhanh hon. Va bat cu ai phat trien ke thua tu nhung doan code cua ban se cam on ban rat nhieu".

"Tim hieu ve viec quan li ma nguon chua bao gio duoc xem nhe".

Ong cung noi rang suc manh lon nhat cua ngon ngu PHP la bo tai lieu tuyet voi va hoan toan mien phi tai PHP.net. Voi mot so ngon ngu khac, co the ban se can phai di ra ngoai va mua cac tai lieu nhu sach ngoai tru voi PHP".

9. Maggie Nelson: Tim hieu ve luu tru du lieu (data storage)

Nelson la mot nha phat trien PHP hien dang lam viec cho Flickr.

Co noi rang nhung nguoi moi hoc PHP nen bat dau hoc ve luu tru du lieu ngay tu khi moi bat dau.

"Hau nhu ban se su dung PHP cho cac ung dung web. Cac ung dung web noi troi la nhung ung dung web su dung du lieu theo nhung cach khong binh thuong de giai quyet nhung van de binh thuong. Neu ban chi vua bat dau voi PHP va day la ngon ngu lap trinh dau tien cua ban, hay danh mot hoac hai ngay de doc ve luu tru du lieu va mot chut ve SQL. PHP duoc biet den la hoat dong rat tot voi cac co so du lieu. Hay thu tim hieu ve MySQL, cac co so du lieu quan he khac va mot vai giai phap luu tru NoSQL".

"Hay tu viet code cho it nhat mot ung dung ma khong dung bat cu thu vien hay framework ho tro nao. The gioi PHP cung cap rat nhieu cac framework tuyet voi va co the de dang truu tuong hoa (abstract) viec truy cap du lieu, nhung hay luon dam bao rang ban thuc su hieu du lieu thuc su duoc thao tac ra sao dang sau hau truong!".

10. Michael Maclean: Tim hieu ve bao mat

Maclean la mot nha phat trien PHP va Python tai Outer Hebrides, Scotland.

Ong noi: "Kha de dang de co the hieu va code PHP, do la li do tai sao rat nhieu nguoi su dung no, nhung toi nghi dieu quan trong la phai xem tren thuc te moi nguoi dang dung no nhu the nao. Thay vi viet tat ca moi thu tu dau, hay tim hieu mot vai framework. Viec nay se giup ban co mot diem xuat phat thuan loi hon.

"Ngoai ra nen hoc them ve bao mat. Trong qua khu, PHP da bi nhieu chi trich ve van de nay. Do la mat trai cua tinh de su dung cua PHP. Co nhieu nguon sach vo va tai nguyen tren mang trinh bay ve cach tranh doi pho voi cac van de bao mat. Hay tim doc nhung cuon sach va thong tin tren mang ve chu de bao mat cua cac tac gia Chris Shiflett va Ilia Alshanetsky".

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