Nhung van de can giai dap khi su dung binh gas bep gas

Thứ năm, 03 Tháng mười một 2011, 17:32 GMT+7

"La mot ky su trong linh vuc LPG - gas hoa long, toi rat dau long khi doc nhung thong tin tai nan no hoi gas sap nha sang nay. Toi mong muon gui toi nguoi tieu dung nhung thong tin co ban nhat de su dung gas an toan, hieu qua, cung nhu cach xu ly cac tinh huong tinh huong khan cap", ban doc Nguyen Khac Tri chia se cung ban doc VnExpress.

1. Binh gas co the gay no khong?

- Binh gas khong the gay no vi tat ca cac binh deu co van an toan hoat dong tu dong o 26 kg/cm2. Khi nhiet do ben ngoai tang cao (vi du: hoa hoan) ap suat gas trong binh tang dan den 26 kg/cm2 ap suat gas trong binh thang luc ep lo xo cua van an toan dan den mo xu pap cua van an toan, hoi gas xi ra ngoai lam giam ap suat va nhiet do trong binh vi gas thoat ra khoi vo binh voi luu luong lon se thu nhiet lam lanh gas long trong binh. Duong nhien hoi gas thoat ra ngoai bat lua se chay nhung chi chay cuc bo trong khi dang xay ra hoa hoan chu khong gay no, pha huy cac cong trinh kien truc.

2. Khi mua binh gas lam sao co the biet duoc luong gas trong binh du 12 kg, 13 kg hay 48 kg?

- Binh gas sau khi nap du khoi luong gas se duoc niem phong bang con niem nhua, mang co.Tuy nhien khach hang co the kiem tra khoi luong gas trong binh bang cach can tong khoi luong vo binh va gas sau do tru di khoi luong vo da duoc ghi noi tren thanh binh sau chu T.W.

3. Lam sao co the biet binh het gas? Tai sao khong lap dong ho do ap suat nhu cac binh ap luc chua khi khac (chai oxygen, acetylen ...)

- Day chinh la van de ma khach hang rat hay dat ra. Gas( chinh xac la LPG) trong binh ton tai o trang thai bao hoa, do vay ap suat hoi bao hoa(tinh chat tuong tu nhu hoi nuoc bao hoa) chi phu thuoc vao nhiet do cua LPG ma khong phu thuoc vao luong LPG trong binh. Neu lap ap ke se cho thay su bien doi ap suat hoi bao hoa theo nhiet do chu khong the hien luong LPG trong binh.

Day la mot dac tinh dac biet cua khi dot hoa long LPG khac voi cac khi khong hoa long khac. Khi xa khi nen(oxygen, acetylen...) tu binh chua ap luc ra ngoai, mat do phan tu khi giam dan dan den ap suat trong binh cung giam dan theo mot ty le nhat dinh, do do ap ke the hien luong khi nen con lai trong binh.

Ap ke o binh LPG chi co y nghia khi gas long (pha long) da hoa hoi het va binh LPG tro thanh binh chua khi nen nhu cac loai khi nen khac nhung khong con gas long thi luong hoi gas se bi tieu thu trong thoi gian rat ngan (vai phut). Do do, ap ke cho binh LPG khong mang y nghia the hien luong LPG duoc chua trong binh cung nhu du bao sap het gas nen da so van dieu ap va binh gas khong lap dong ho ap suat.

Thong thuong khi sap het binh, ngon lua thuong do va bat bep nhieu lan van khong chay thi het gas. Khach hang cung co the can kiem tra nhu phan tra loi cau hoi 2. hoac theo doi muc do tieu thu trung binh hang thang co the tinh truoc ngay het gas.

4. Gas va san pham chay cua gas co doc khong?

- Gas hoan toan khong gay doc doi voi nguoi su dung cung nhu doi voi moi truong. Khi bi dot chay, gas luon chay het ke ca trong truong hop chay co ngon lua do. San pham chay chi tao ra dioxit cacbon (CO2) va hoi nuoc- nhung thanh phan khac hoan toan khong doc hai.

Van de nguy hiem chi xay ra khi dung bep gas, binh gas trong phong kin. Neu do so suat gas ro ri ra ngoai hoi gas se lan truyen, dang tu duoi len tren (vi nang hon khong khi), choan cho, day dan khong khi ra ngoai, gay ngat.

Cung tuong tu, khi CO2 sinh ra sau khi gas chay trong phong kin, neu khong thong gio thich hop se tich luy dan, lam giam nong do oxy trong khong khi. Do do can tuan thu nghiem ngat cac quy dinh doi voi nguoi su dung.

5. Tai sao co hien tuong ngung hoi nuoc ben ngoai vo binh gas (hien tuong do mo hoi)? Tai sao phai su dung dieu ap va khi hoat dong dieu ap co tieng keu nho.?

- Khi su dung thiet bi gas, qua trinh chuyen pha gas long thanh gas hoi trong binh xay ra tuong tu nhu dun nuoc soi, chi khac nhau o cho be mat hap thu nhiet cua gas long la toan bo phan tiep xuc voi vo binh (be mat uot). Neu thiet bi tieu thu gas voi luu luong lon doi hoi qua trinh chuyen pha long thanh hoi nhanh hon ma nhiet luong ben ngoai vo binh chua cung cap du thi gas long se lay nhiet cua vo binh de bay hoi. Vo binh bi lam lanh, lam ngung tu hoi am cua khong khi ben ngoai.

Dieu ap co chuc nang giam ap suat cua gas trong binh (khoang 6 kg/cm2) xuong 0,03 kg/cm2 de dam bao an toan khi su dung bep vi tat ca cac thiet bi dung gas dan dung deu duoc thiet ke cho ap suat cap gas la 11 inch cot nuoc (0,03kg/cm2).

Dieu ap con tu dong on dinh luu luong hoi gas vao cac thiet bi tieu thu binh gas day hay voi. Luong gas con it hay nhieu trong binh khong lam thay doi ap suat ma chi anh huong den toc do bay hoi chuyen hoa tu gas long thanh gas hoi vi be mat uot cua binh chua nhieu gas lon hon be mat uot cua binh chua it gas nen hap thu nhiet luong ben ngoai de dang hon. Dieu ap hoat dong tu dong dong mo se lam rung dong mang cao su ben trong dan den hien tuong phat tieng keu nho.

6. Hieu qua kinh te su dung Gas so voi cac nguon nang luong khac?

- De cung cung cap mot don vi nhiet luong, 1 kg LPG tuong duong 14 KWh dien nang, 2 lit dau hoa, 3-4 kg than. Ben canh do con co nhieu dac tinh uu viet nhu: can it khong gian cho ton chua, nhiet luong cao, dieu chinh ngon lua de dang, an toan, khong gay o nhiem moi truong.... LPG khong nhung duoc dung cho dun bep ma con duoc dung rong rai trong cong nghiep nhu: han cat kim loai, che bien san pham thuy tinh, cung cap nhiet cho lo nung gom, su, thuy san, say che, thuoc la..., nhien lieu cho dong co thay xang....

7. Tai sao su dung binh gas du lich tai cac dich vu doi lon gas rat nguy hiem?

- Su dung binh gas du lich nap lai la moi nguy co gay chay no cao nhat trong viec su dung gas dan dung boi cac nguyen nhan sau:

Tat ca cac loai gas nap binh dan dung (loai binh 12 kg, 13kg) o Viet Nam deu la hon hop Butane va Propane voi ty le khac nhau. Trong dieu kien binh thuong, ap suat gas trong binh dan dung la 6,5 kg/cm2 con binh gas du lich duoc san xuat de chi chua 100% gas butane thap ap, ap suat lon nhat o dieu kien binh thuong la 2,5 kg/cm2. Viec chiet nap gas cao ap vao binh chi chiu duoc ap suat thap (vo rat mong) dan den bien dang va no, gay ra dam chay.

Mot nguyen nhan dan den nguy co chay no la cong nghe nap binh thu cong nen de nap qua khoi luong cho phep cua binh (85% the tich). Khi nhiet do moi truong tang cao, gas long gian no nhiet, dac biet nguy hiem neu binh bi nap day gas long khong co khong gian gas hoi, ap suat thuy luc se pha vo vo binh.

Binh gas du lich da duoc nha san xuat de nghi chi dung mot lan (tren nhan hang hoa) do khong the kiem soat chat luong vo cu luu thong tren thi truong.

Loai binh nay phan tan rong dong thoi viec chiet nap trai phep dien ra trong khu dan cu nen tiem an nguy co chay no rat cao.

Binh gas du lich nap lai la 1 dien hinh ro ret ve binh gas khong dam bao chat luong nhung vi loi nhuan nhieu co so da to chuc sang nap trai phep rat nguy hiem cho nguoi tieu dung.

8. Tai sao bat num danh lua bep khong chay?

- Bat num danh lua bep khong bat lua chay do nhieu nguyen nhan, thong thuong la mot trong cac nguyen nhan sau:

Co the khong khi trong ong dan gas chua bi duoi ra het nen bep khong chay ngay. Can lap lai thao tac danh lua (thuong xay ra voi bep danh lua gian doan bang gom ap dien, khong xay ra voi bep danh lua lien tuc bang pin).

Khong sinh tia lua dien tai dau danh lua do day dan cao ap khong cach dien voi vo bep, tia lua dien phong ngay tai noi tiep xuc voi vo bep hoac cho day dan ho gan vo bep nhat. Khac phuc bang cach dung bang keo boc kin day dan bo phan danh lua va dat cach xa cac chi tiet kim loai cua bep. Hien tuong nay rat hay xay ra trong nhung ngay co do am cao (troi nom), hoi am bam tren day dan, chi tiet bep lam ro dien khi danh lua khi do can say kho va boc cach dien cac chi tiet nay.

Nguoi su dung can dac biet luu y: khi danh lua bep neu khong chay thi can cho 30 giay de hoi gas da thoat ra tu bep duoc phan tan het moi bat bep danh lua lai Neu bat danh lua lien tuc va keo dai khi bep bat chay se bung ngon lua lon, gay nguy hiem.

9. Tai sao ngon lua do? Cach khac phuc?

- Ngon lua chay do do nhieu nguyen nhan:

Chi tiet mam dong tren bep khi tiep xuc voi ngon lua bi ban, do vay can phai thao ra va danh sach bang ban chai.

Co nuoc o chi tiet dong hoac o day do dung dun nau, voi truong hop nay ngon lua se tu xanh lai sau vai phut.

Ty le khong khi qua thap, can dieu chinh lai ty le gas va khong khi bang cach xoay hoac gat canh dieu chinh khong khi o phia duoi van bep (neu co) den khi ngon lua xanh nhat.

10. Bep co nhung bo phan an toan gi?

- Hien nay cac bep gas thuong co 2 loai ro le an toan.

+ Ro le an toan khi mat lua: Khi bep bi tat lua dot ngot nhu gio thoi, trao nuoc... nhiet do giam nhanh, cap luong kim pin nhiet dien ngay lap tuc dong van gas lai va khong cho gas xi thoat ra ngoai.

+ Ro le an toan khi qua nhiet: Do so xuat, ngon lua dun can chat long dang soi (nuoc, dau, mo) khien nhiet do tang cao, den 2600 dau cam bien tiep xuc voi day dung cu dun nau se dieu khien van gas lam tat ngon lua.

11. Mot binh gas va he thong gas gia dinh dam bao an toan can dap ung cac tieu chi gi?

- He thong gas gia dinh can phai dap ung cac yeu cau:

- Binh gas phai con han kiem dinh, hinh thuc nguyen ven khong mop meo, han gi nhieu

- Khi mua moi, binh gas phai duoc nap dung khoi luong (12kg hoac 13 kg…), khong thua hoac thieu qua 0,1kg.

- Phu kien phai chuyen dung cho gas: bao gom day dan co han thoi gian su dung, dieu ap hoat dong tot, Moi noi giua bep gas, cac phu kien, bep phai kin tuyet doi.

- Nha cung cap, cua hang, dai ly phai chuyen nghiep, duoc dao tao, co dia chi ro rang, co kien thuc de kiem tra bao duong he thong gas dan dung, tu van su dung gas hieu qua va an toan cho khach hang.

12. Lam the nao nhan biet duoc binh gas that ?

- Cac dac diem de nhan biet duoc binh gas that:

a. Ten chu so huu binh gas duoc dap noi tren quai binh, vai xung quanh van binh. Lolo duoc dan hoac son tren than binh, co nhan hang hoa theo quy dinh cua Bo Thuong mai.

b. Gas duoc nap dung khoi luong

c. Cac hang co nhieu loai niem phong van khac nhau: mang co, tem phat sang... Petrolimex Gas su dung niem nhua va mang co co so series dac biet ma hoa, kieu dang da dang ky bao ho so huu cong nghiep. Nguoi tieu dung nguoi nen kiem tra niem binh nguyen ven truoc khi nhan binh gas, sau do pha niem, luu giu lai niem cho toi lan doi binh tiep theo, lap dieu ap vao binh de su dung.

d. Binh gas that duoc cung cap tu cac cua hang co dia chi ro rang, co du dieu kien kinh doanh gas theo Thong tu so 15/1999 cua Bo Thuong mai.

13. Binh gas gia, nhai nhan mac va canh bao ve hien tuong trao binh gas cua mot so co so tu nhan

- Hien tuong lam hang gia anh huong den quyen loi nguoi tieu dung va hang kinh doanh chan chinh, gay mat an toan chay no trong khu dan cu, canh tranh khong lanh manh lam roi loan thi truong gas . Cac dac diem cua binh gas gia la:

a. Binh gia thuong gia danh cong ty lon, duoc quang cao bang to roi chat luong kem phat toi tan cac ho gia dinh, giao binh gas qua dien thoai, khong co dia chi ro rang, nhan vien thuong tu nhan bao duong bep nham muc dich dan so dien thoai moi hoac thong bao co so cu chuyen sang so dien thoai moi, de nghi doi dieu ap de trao doi loai binh gas...

b. Binh dong nap thieu khoi luong gas.

c. Binh gas khong co niem, niem da bi pha hoac dung niem gia.

d. Cac co so tu nhan thuong son mau binh giong cac hang lon de trao doi binh: chiem doat chenh lech tien cuoc vo cua nguoi tieu dung. Co truong hop cat quai binh (co dap ten hang cung cap) han quai moi de xoa ten.

14. Nguoi tieu dung can phai chu y gi de su dung gas an toan?

1. Khi lap dat binh moi hoac thay binh phai chu y:

+ Chi nhan binh gas tu cac co so co dia chi kinh doanh ro rang, khong cho phep nhan vien tiep thi vao nha bao duong bep gas. Co cac so dien thoai cua chinh hang de kiem tra lai dai ly, cua hang.

+ Chi su dung cac phu kien dieu ap, ong mem chuyen dung cho gas duoc cung cap tu cac hang lon, co uy tin, ong mem dan gas co in chu su dung cho LPG.

+ Kiem tra binh gas dem den co cung loai voi binh dang su dung khong: Kiem tra mau son, kieu van binh, logo, dac biet la ten Hang cung cap gas dap tren quai hoac vai binh.

+ Can kiem tra khoi luong gas trong binh bang cach can ca binh va tru di khoi luong vo binh (so sau chu T.W. tren quai binh), co the yeu cau co so ban hang dem can khi giao binh.

+ Kiem tra tinh nguyen ven cua niem, niem co duong net sac sao, so series in phun, boc niem va luu giu lai niem cho toi lan doi binh tiep theo.

+ Sau khi lap dieu ap, yeu cau nhan vien ban hang kiem tra ro ri moi noi dieu ap va van binh bang phat hien mui hoac nuoc xa phong (sau do lau sach).

2. Khi su dung binh va bep:

+ Thuong xuyen kiem tra tinh trang cua dieu ap, ong dan: xem co bi rach, gap, lao hoa do dau mo...thay the de luon trong trang thai tot.

+ Khi khong dung bep luon tat theo trinh tu : khoa van binh gas va dong van cua bep gas (xoay num hoac nhan phim tat tren bep).

+ Cac vu no gas xay ra do gas ro ri tu moi noi khong kin giua dieu ap voi van binh, thung ong mem dan gas, qua dem khong khoa van binh, van bep dan den gas ro ri ra ngoai. Khi gap moi lua hoac tia lua dien gay ra vu chay no. Can phai thuong kiem tra do kin cac phu kien bang nuoc xa phong va hang ngay khoa van binh gas truoc khi di ngu.

3. Tuyet doi khong su dung binh gas du lich nap lai

4. Cac hanh dong khan cap khi phat hien mui gas:

+ Khong bat tat cac thiet bi dien, khong bat cac nguon lua nhu: bep gas, bat lua...

+ Dong van binh gas hoac thao dieu ap doi voi van binh tu dong.

+ Canh gioi va thong bao cho nhieu nguoi biet de ngan ngua hoi gas tiep xuc voi nguon lua, tia lua dien.

+ Mo cua thong thoang tu nhien khu vuc ro gas de hoi gas phan tan (khong dung quat dien va quat thong gio chay dien).

+ Voi cho ro nho can tim ngay vi tri ro bang nuoc xa phong va co bien phap han che luong gas thoat ra ngoai (VD: dung day cao su cuon chat, dung keo, xa phong bit cho ro...)

+ Goi dien bao ngay cho co so cung cap gas de co giai phap xu ly toan dien, dam bao an toan.

- Neu co dieu kien, nguoi tieu dung nen su dung may bao ro gas loai nho cho gia dinh, lap trong hoc tu bep gan binh gas va phu kien , cach nen nha 25cm.

5. Cac hanh dong khan cap khi xay ra chay:

+ Nhanh chong cat nguon gas bang cach: dong van binh gas, van bep gas (num dieu chinh ngon lua).

+ Dung cac phuong tien nhu: binh cuu hoa hoac chan uot dap dam chay.

+ Neu binh gas bi uy hiep boi dam chay khac thi can phai chuyen binh den noi an toan, trong truong hop khong the van chuyen duoc thi phun nuoc lam mat.

+ Goi luc luong chua chay chuyen nghiep.

Nguyen Khac Tri



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