Tiem kich Khong quan Viet Nam mang ten lua sat thu

Thứ hai, 17 Tháng sáu 2013, 15:29 GMT+7

De bao ve bien troi to quoc, cac tiem kich sieu co dong cua khong quan Viet Nam Su–30 MK2 duoc trang bi nhieu loai vu khi hien dai, mot trong so do la ten lua khong doi dat va chong tau Kh-59MK.

Day la loai ten lua hanh trinh co do chinh xac rat cao, tam ban xa va kha nang dieu khien da phuong tien, uy luc cuc ky manh me. Kh–59 MK da duoc xuat khau sang nhieu nuoc va qua trinh khai thac su dung thuc te da chung minh cho suc manh cua no.

Ten lua khong – hai (dat lien) Kh–59M duoc trang bi cho luc luong khong quan nham muc dich tieu diet cac muc tieu co kich thuoc nho tren mat dat va tren mat bien (cac muc tieu dang neo dau trong vung nuoc ven bo hoac tren cac hai cang, can cu quan su ven bien) voi toa do muc tieu da duoc xac dinh, bi phat hien boi phi cong, cac muc tieu phai co do tuong phan so voi moi truong la 0,1 - 0,3.


Anh minh hoa

Ten lua Kh-59 MK trang bi cho may bay chien dau.


Ten lua duoc thiet ke va che tao tai Phong thiet ke tap doan che tao ten lua MKB "Raduga" duoi su chi dao cua chu nhiem thiet ke I.Selezneva. X-59M la phien ban hien dai hoa sau cua ten lua Kh-59 voi noi dung chu yeu la thay the dong co day phan luc nhien lieu ran bang dong co tua bin phan luc nho RDK-300, dieu do da dan den viec gan nhu thiet ke mot to hop ten lua moi, co nhung dac diem ve cau truc cung nhu cac tinh nang ky thuat khac hoan toan ten lua co so.

To hop ten lua duoc lap dat tren may bay Su – 24M, may bay duoc lap he thong dieu khien vu khi SU) -1-6M, cac gia treo ten lua APK -9, va ten lua co the duoc su dung ma khong can bo sung them bat cu thiet bi nao cho may bay. Ten lua duoc thu nghiem dau tien tren may bay tiem kich hang nang Su–27. Ten lua Kh–59 va ten lua Kh-59M duoc san xuat hang loat tai nha may che tao thiet bi hang khong o thanh pho Smolensk, bo phan tu dan va he thong dan dan “Tecon -1” duoc san xuat tai Lvov.

Ten lua Kh-59 da duoc su dung nhieu trong cuoc chien dau chong phan loan o Chesnhia, muc tieu cua ten lua la cac vi tri an nap cua phien quan ly khai va kho tang dich. Hieu qua cua ten lua duoc danh gia khong cao do dieu kien thoi tiet khi hau gio tuyet da anh huong lon den do tuong phan cua muc tieu voi moi truong.

To hop lan dau tien duoc gioi thieu tai trien lam hang khong Moscow MAKS-93. Trong giai doan ngay nay ten lua duoc danh cho xuat khau voi ma hieu “Ovod (Ruoi trau) – ME”. Tai trien lam MAKS – 2009 Ovod – ME duoc trung bay hai phien ban chinh la Kh–59 ME va Kh-59M2E nham muc dich co the tieu diet dai muc tieu rong hon tren mat dat va tren mat bien voi toa do muc tieu da xac dinh va duoc tang cuong dieu kien tac chien (trong moi dieu kien thoi gian ngay dem hoac bi gioi han ve tam nhin. Ten lua Kh-59M2E nang hon ten lua Kh-50ME va co he thong dan duong truyen tin hieu tu ten lua ve hoa tieu voi dau dan dan lap camera co do nhay cao.

Tap doan san xuat ten lua Raduga con gioi thieu mau nang cap sau ten lua Kh-59M tang tam ban len den 285 km, ten lua chong tau Kh–59MK voi dau tu dan bang radar ARGS – 59E va ten lua da nhiem X-59MK2.

Phuong Tay dinh danh ten lua la AS-18 «Kazoo». Ten lua tuong duong la AGM-84E SLAM

To hop ten lua Ovod – M bao gom co: Ten lua Kh-59M; Gia treo vu khi hang khong da nang, Thiet bi phong ten lua duong khong va bo phan dieu khien ten lua cua phi cong voi man hinh hien thi muc tieu.

Ten lua Kh-59 M duoc thiet ke theo mo hinh khi dong hoc khong canh duoi voi 4 canh bay hinh chu thap va bo phan canh dieu khien,canh on dinh duong bay o mui ten lua. De tang cao kha nang song con cua ten lua, than ten lua phia ben trong duoc chia thanh nhieu khoang. Cac co quan dieu khien la cac canh lai khi dong hoc.


Anh minh hoa

1- Block thiet bi dieu khien quang dien tu; 2- Block chuan bi va kiem tra ky thuat ten lua; 3 -Thiet bi ghi thong so ky thuat (bo nho); 4- Camera nhay quang; 5 - Block dieu khien ten lua; 6 - Radar do do cao; 7- Dau no lom xuyen pha cua ten lua; 8 - Thiet bi dieu chinh dong co day; 9 - Thiet bi truyen tin hieu vo tuyen; 10 - Can dieu khien canh lai; 11 - thiet bi nhan tin hieu vo tuyen; 12 - Dong co day tang toc ; 13 - Dong co tua bin hanh trinh; 14 - Nap day dong co phan luc; 15 - Binh dien ac quy.

Neu so sanh giua ten lua Kh- 59 voi ten lua Kh –59M da co nhung thay doi lon ve cau truc than ten lua, dong co phan luc nhien lieu ran duoc thay the bang dong co tua – bin nho RDK – 300 duoc gan phia duoi cua ten lua. Khoang trung tam cua ten lua duoc su dung la khoang nhien lieu – khoang co he thong cap nhien lieu dong co va co nap nhien lieu – la dau may bay. Phia cuoi cua ten lua van giu lai dong co ten lua day phan luc nhien lieu ran, cho phep ten lua duoc phong di voi toc do cao va dong co day duy tri duoc toc do hanh trinh va tam bay xa. Sau khi ten lua duoc phong di, nap khi dong hoc bao ve cua dong co tua bin phan luc tranh bui ban khi may bay cat canh se bay ra khoi co hut gio, dong co tua bin phan luc se khoi dong va ten lua bay theo luc day dong co.


Anh minh hoa

Dac diem cua cau hinh ten lua Kh-59MK la tang do dai canh cat gio mui do ten lua co khoi luong va kich thuoc lon hon. Cac canh mui khi phong ten lua, o trang thai gap duoi tac dung cua lo xo se bat mo va bi chot chat. Ten lua duoc chuyen trong tam nhieu ve phia truoc nhung van giu duoc du luc de dieu khien ten lua khi bay. Thiet ke dong co tua bin phan luc da lam thay doi he thong dieu khien ten lua. Lap dat them bo phan dieu chinh dong co, bo phan nay tien hanh khoi dong dong co, kiem soat che do hoat dong cua dong co voi luong nhien lieu cung cap va duy tri toc do bay .

Tam xa cua duong truyen tin hieu dieu khien ten lua la 140 km, cho phep tien hanh phong ten lua hieu qua tren khoang cach la 120 km. Ten lua Kh-59M co the phong tu do cao thap (den 100 m) va co the bay o do cao thap den muc tieu (tu 50 m den 1000 m), duoc dieu khien bang he thong dan duong quan tinh va radar do do cao. Khoang rong duoc tang gap doi duong luong no, dau dan xuyen giap co khoi luong la 320kg, dau dan loai casset co khoi luong la 280 kg voi nhung thanh phan gay sat thuong va pha huy nhu manh ten lua va hieu ung no lom. Do chinh xac cua ten lua tren tam ban hieu qua cua ten lua Kh–59M rat cao, cho sai lech trong ban kinh tu 2–3 m. De lap dat len may bay ten lua Kk –59M su dung gia treo AKU – 58 – 1.

Tat ca cac bo phan tren than ten lua deu duoc gan ket bang cac ket cau giac co the thao roi rat nhanh, bo phan dau chup bao ve dau mui ten lua se duoc bat ra ngoai khi phong, duoc che tao tu vat lieu nhe AMG – 6. Khoang dau dan – tu vat lieu thep VNS -2, Canh ten lua cung duoc che tao tu nhom tong hop AMG – 6, cac xuong khung ten lua tu thep VKL-3. Khoang ben trong cua ten lua duoc che tao bang vat lieu cach nhiet ATM – 9 -200 dan chat vao thanh ben trong cua ten lua de giam tac dong nhiet khi bay.

He thong dieu khien duoc lap trong hinh tru dang container kin va chia thanh 4 khoang, Khoang mui (radar va camera voi cac thiet bi di kem) va khoang lai duoc che tao tu vat lieu khong san song radio.


Anh minh hoa

Ten lua Kh – 59 MK2.

He thong dieu khien ten lua Kh-59M La he thong dieu khien to hop, bao gom he thong dieu khien ten lua theo quang anh ket hop voi radar do do cao va truyen tai thong tin vo tuyen. Phuong thuc dieu khien nhu sau: Truoc khi phong ten lua, phi cong – hoa tieu se huong may bay ve phia muc tieu va qua camera ten lua truyen thong tin hinh anh len cho phi cong, trong do co muc tieu, dia hinh cua quy dao ten lua, phi cong chien dau se truyen menh lenh va thong tin muc tieu den ten lua thong qua kenh vo tuyen. Ten lua sau khi phong se bay den muc tieu dua tren phan tich cau truc dia hinh quy dao ten lua de lay do cao (tu 15 den 1000 m) se bay den muc tieu theo dia hinh bang bo phan dieu khien Avtophilot SNAU – 59 cho den khi tren man hinh phi cong xuat hien muc tieu. Sau khi xac dinh chinh xac do la muc tieu can tieu diet, phi cong hoa tieu huong chu thap va bat nut che do deo bam muc tieu tu dong “Tubusо” sau do ten lua se chu dong tu dan den muc tieu va dong thoi chuyen tai thong tin ve cho phi cong hoa tieu.

Ten lua Kh-59 MK la phien ban cai tien sau hon cua Kh-59 voi he thong dieu khien hien dai hon va nang cap dong co day voi muc dich la chong chien ham noi. Dong co tang toc phan luc nhien lieu ran duoc thay the bang thung dung nhien lieu cho phep ten lua co thoi gian tang toc dat toc do hanh trinh theo chuan cua Kh-59M va tam ban xa hon. Kh-59MK duoc su dung de tieu diet nhieu loai muc tieu tren bien co do phan xa hieu dung cua radar lon hon 300 m2 (tu xuong phong ten lua den tau tuan duong) trong moi dieu kien thoi tiet va khi hau – moi truong bien, cung nhu tren bien lon hoac trong cac vung nuoc ven bo.


Anh minh hoa

Ten lua Kh – 59 MK tren duong bay.

So sanh voi Kh-59M, ten lua Kh-59MK duoc lap dat dau tu dan radar chu dong theo doi va bam muc tieu ARGS – 59E duoc thiet ke va che tao boi "NPP" Radar MMS "(St Petersburg)., voi mot dau dan duong luong no lon dap ung hieu suat tieu diet muc tieu rat cao. Tam ban xa nhat cua ten lua doi voi muc tieu lon nhu tau tuan duong, tau khu truc la 285 km, tam ban cap “xuong, frigate” co the o muc 145 km. Xac suat trung muc tieu doi voi tuan duong, khu truc ham khoang 0.9 – 0.96, xuong phong loi khoang 0.7 – 0.93, voi khinh ham va tau ho ve ten lua (luong gian nuoc tu 500 – 4000 tan) kha nang cong kich tieu diet muc tieu la 1 ten lua. Voi tau tuan duong, khu truc, kha nang tieu diet o muc 1.8 va 1.3.


Anh minh hoa

Ten lua Kh–59MK2 lap dat cho Su–30 MK.

Ten lua Kh-59МК2 co dac diem khac hon so voi Kh-59МК la he thong dieu chinh ten lua quang anh tu dan, cho phep ten lua co kha nang tu dong so sanh dia hinh muc tieu dang neo dau hoac co dong gan bo. ten lua cung duoc trang bi he thong dan duong quan tinh va tu dong dieu khien tren co so ap dung he thong dan duong quan tinh khong de strapdown, dong thoi su dung he thong dinh vi ve tinh de chinh chuan toa do ten lua. Kh-59МК (Kh-59МК2) deu su dung radar do do cao А-079E duoc phat trien boi nha may che tao thiet bi dieu khien Nga (UPKB – Detal). Do cao hanh trinh cua ten lua Kh – 59MK khoang tu 50 – 300 m, gay kho khan lon cho cac he thong phong khong mat dat. ten lua lop Kh – 59MK2 co the duoc su dung trong moi dieu kien thoi tien, anh sang tren khu vuc muc tieu tu 103 ÷ 105 lx hoac lon hon tren moi dieu kien dia hinh. Goc phat hien muc tieu tren ten lua Kh -59MK2 ±45°.

Ten lua Kh-59МК va Kh-59МК2 duoc lap dong co tua bin phan luc 36МТ (ТRDD-50АТ) phat trien boi Trung tam nghien cuu che tao mo to “Om” va san xuat hang loat tai tap doan NPO “Saturn” . 36 MT la loai dong co nho sieu tiet kiem nhien lieu hai buong dot, hai truc van dong tam cao ap. Dong co cho luc day la 450 kgf tren do cao cua song bien, dong co co chieu dai la 850 mm va duong kinh la 330 mm. Cong suat dong co : 4kW; Tieu hao nhien lieu: 0,71 kg / kg * h, su dung nhien lieu – dau may bay, Т-6, Т-10, ТS-1, RТ.


Anh minh hoa

"Ho mang chua" Su-30 MK2 (anh) va tiem kich Su-27 cua khong quan Viet Nam deu co the mang ten lua "sat thu" diet ham Kh-59MK.



Dac diem ky thuat cua dong co la cho phep ten lua co dong rat cao, tam cao hoat dong cua ten lua co dong la 0,2 – 11km, toc do dat den 1100 km/h. Khi ten lua bay theo chuong trinh da lap, moi hoat dong dieu chinh dong co ten lua deu duoc tu dong hoa hoan toan.

Dau no xuyen pha co khoi luong no la 320kg voi thoi gian giu cham, ten lua se xuyen thung vo giap tau va sau do khoi no moi duoc kich no. De tan cong muc tieu mat dat tren dien rong, ten lua co the duoc lap dau dan casset co khoi luong 283 kg va cac dan thu cap xuyen giap hieu ung no lom va no pha manh.

Ten lua Kh-59 M (MK, MK2) duoc treo tren cac may bay tan cong bang cac gia treo da nang nhu АPК-8 hoac АPК- 9 bao gom Su-17M (Viet Nam), Su-24, Su-27, Su-30MK, MiG 29…..dong thoi co the lap dat tren cac may bay nuoc ngoai nhu Mirage – 3, F-15, F,16….

Moi may bay chien dau mang duoc 2 ten lua khong doi dat – hai

Cac thong so tinh nang ky chien thuat chung cua ten lua:

Ten lua co chieu dai la 5.690 mm, duong kinh lon nhat la 380 mm, sai canh 1.260 – 1.320 mm, khoi luong cat canh 920 voi Kh-59 va 960 kg voi Kh -59 MK2.

La vu khi diet ham tam trung, voi uu diem la tam ban xa, do cao phong ten lua thap, va ten lua cung bay o do cao thap theo chieu cao dia hinh, nen Kh–59MK la vu khi co hieu qua tac chien rat cao, dac biet khu vuc vung nuoc ven bo bien. Ten lua duoc su dung tan cong cac ham tau dang tap ket, chuan bi do bo, hoac dang neo dau trong can cu. Dong thoi ten lua cung duoc su dung de tieu diet binh luc, phuong tien chien tranh nhu be phong ten lua dat doi dat hoac dat doi hai va tan cong cac cum quan luc hanh quan bang dan thu cap casset.


(theo Trinh Thai Bang - Tien Phong)

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