Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi

Thứ sáu, 12 Tháng tư 2013, 08:33 GMT+7

De thay the cho tau san bay huyen thoai Enterprise den nam 2013 se nghi huu. Hai quan My dang co gang thuc hien ke hoach dong tau Gerald R. Ford voi cac cong nghe toi tan nhat, uy luc manh nhat.

Nhung nam gan day, My dang don het suc cua nen cong nghiep dong tau de hoan thanh chiec tau san bay chay bang nang luong nguyen tu Gerald R.Ford (CVN-78) CVN-78. Tau san bay duoc xay dung theo du an CVNX-1, du an nghien cuu nhung thay doi trong thiet ke khung suon than tau AB theo mau "Chester Nimitz" voi chat luong cao hon cua tau moi. Mo hinh thiet ke cua tau CVN-78 "Gerald R. Ford" da co nhung thay doi dang ke nham nang cao kha nang tac chien doc lap cua tau.


Thiet ke phat trien cua tau san bay the he moi CVX duoc bat vao nam 1996
Thiet ke phat trien cua tau san bay the he moi CVX duoc bat vao nam 1996.
Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi
Buoc dau qua trinh phat trien, tren co so thiet ke duoc de ra cua tau, theo yeu cau cua Chi luy truong luc luong Hai quan Hoa ky da tap hop uy ban tu van thiet ke tau, phoi hop chat che voi cac chuyen gia Hai quan va chuyen gia cong nghe dong tau, Uy ban tu van thiet ke, can cu vao kha nang phat trien cua khoa hoc cong nghe, nhung nguy co tiem nang va kha nang phat trien cua chien tranh hien dai da dua ra kien nghi. Tau san bay the he moi can phai hoat dong chu dong, linh hoat hon. Tau can phai co luong gian nuoc hon 100 nghin tan, co khoang san cat canh rong hon de co the dua len tren boong tau hau het cac phuong tien bay co trong bien che, co the dam bao cat canh va ha canh cac loai may bay hien dai trong tuong lai, may bay truc thang chien dau va may bay khong nguoi lai (may bay khong nguoi lai duoc chu y dac biet) trong moi dieu kien thoi tiet.

Tau can duoc lap dat tram nguon nang luong nguyen tu, cho phep tau co the di chuyen khan cap den khu vuc duoc chi dinh ma khong can bo xung nhien lieu (chinh vi the du an co ten la CVNX). He thong dien than tau dam bao dong bo hoa cao nhat, khong chi cung cap dien cho cac bo phan than tau, ma con dam bao phat trien cac loai vu khi nang luong tuong lai (dai bac laser, phao nang luong dien tu…).

De nang cao kha nang song con cua tau san bay, doi pho voi kha nang tan cong cua cac tau ngam, Uy ban tu van de nghi giam tieng on va va phat xung tu truong than tau o muc toi thieu. De tiet kiem kinh phi, uy ban tu van de xuat giam bien che cua kip tau, gia thanh dong tau va nhung chi phi bo xung khi khai thac su dung, dong thoi cung tinh toan khi xay dung lo phan ung hat nhan sao cho khong can phai nap lai cac thanh nang luong cua lo phan ung.


Thiet ke ban dau cua tau san bay, co hinh dang dai va thua o phan mui tau
Thiet ke ban dau cua tau san bay, co hinh dang dai va thua o phan mui tau.
Cac chuyen gia tu van xem xet ky hon mo hinh thu 2
Cac chuyen gia tu van xem xet ky hon mo hinh thu 2.
Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi
Nhung sau khi nghien cuu ky, Bo tu lenh luc luong hai quan va cac chuyen gia cung loai bo phuong an 2 do gia thanh che tao than tau qua cao. Phai thiet ke moi hoan toan kien truc than tau va cho rang kien truc than tau kieu moi se duoc nghien cuu ky hon va can co nhung cong nghe che tao than tau moi hon de thiet ke loai tau san bay kieu moi. De thuc hien duoc dieu nay can khoang 20 nam, trong khoang thoi gian do, 3 tau san bay loai moi van duoc su dung thiet ke than tau theo mau cua tau san bay Nimitz. Cung voi viec hoan thien thiet ke tau san bay CVN 78, tang cuong kha nang tac chien cua tau len hon han cac tau cung loai, dong thoi giam chi phi tai chinh cho duy tri hoat dong cua tau san bay xuong hon 20%.

Trong 50 nam phuc vu cua tau, chi phi cho hoat dong se la 21 – 22 ty USD, bo tu lenh luc luong Hai quan My du kien se tim kiem giai phap trong dieu kien ngan sach han che de giu du so luong tau san bay la 11 tau. Va ngan sach tai chinh tiet kiem duoc dung de phat trien cac loai vu khi trang bi hien dai khac. 40% ( 9 ty USD cua so tien noi tren de bao dam cuoc song cua luc luong binh luc duoc bien che tren tau, do do, bo tu lenh Hai quan tim cach giam so luong binh si va can bo, nhan vien ky thuat tren tau tu 3,5 nghin nguoi xuong con 2,5 nghin nguoi. Luong tai chinh tiet kiem duoc se dung de phat trien va xay dung tau san bay CVN-77, do la tau duoc phat trien hien dai hon va la buoc dem giua thiet ke tau АВМА class Nimitz voi thiet ke mot lop tau moi hon voi nhung tinh chat va thong so ky thuat cao hon.


Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi
Khi Trung Quoc thong bao da co ten lua chong tau san bay tam xa Dong Phong 21D voi kha nang tieu diet muc tieu o tam ban 1500km, nguy co bi tan cong tau san bay tang len nhieu lan. tau san bay se la muc tieu cua cac ten lua co canh, cac dau dan lom, cac ngu loi hien dai, may bay mang bom co dieu khien chua cac loai chat chay nhu napal, tecmit, hoac ten lua co canh mang dau dan no thuong cung nhu dau dan hoa-sinh hoc.

De chong lai nhung nguy co trong cuoc canh tranh thong linh mat bien trong tac chien khong hai, ngoai viec hoan thien cau hinh bao ve cao va cac trang bi vu khi phong thu, thiet ke con tap trung vao viec giam phan xa radio hieu dung, giam buc xa quang dien tu doi voi cac tau san bay trong tuong lai. Tren cac tau lop Nimitz, tren dai chi huy chi co mot cot thiet bi dien tu, dam bao tan xa cac buc xa quang dien tu sao cho cac buc xa tren tau san bay chi tuong duong voi buc xa cua mot tau khu truc ten lua lop Arley Book I.

Theo phuong an do, de tan xa cac buc xa quang dien tu va giam thieu phan xa tia radar, tren tau CVN-78 su dung 2 cot thiet bi tan xa nho gon hon, su dung cac an ten bao giac tren tau, canh cua boong tau duoc cuon hinh canh cung ket noi voi san tau, son phu mot lop son phu dac biet hap thu song dien tu chong phan xa hieu dung cua tia radio dong thoi voi cac giai phap khac ung dung cong nghe stealth, he thong nang ha may bay duoc thiet ke o tam duong bang tren san tau, chu khong o canh boong tau. Nhiem vu cua cac chuyen vien thiet ke khong phai lam cho tau san bay tro thanh tang hinh tren man hinh radar, ma thu nho mat phan xa hieu dung cua tau chi nho tuong duong nhu cac tau khac trong hai trinh hoac trong doi hinh chien dau tren bien.


Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi
Gerald R.Ford - la chiec tau dau tien cua luc luong Hai quan duoc thiet ke bang cong nghe mo phong 3D toan bo, do cong ty Northrop Grumman, he thong thiet ke mo phong 3D duoc tu dong hoa toan bo quy trinh mo phong cac hoat dong ky thuat cua cac bo phan, cac he thong tren tau nham danh gia kha nang thuc tien cua trang thiet bi khi duoc lap dat tren tau san bay, cung nhu mo phong kha nang cat ha canh cua may bay hien dai, bao gom ca may bay khong nguoi lai.

- Cau tao than tau tuong tu nhu cac tau san bay lop Nimitz, dai chi huy tau, cac he thong nhu dai quan sat, dieu khien bay, dieu khien lai tau, quan sat dieu khien duoc xay dung va lap dat o phia cuoi tau, sat voi duong boong tau, cac cau truc cot an ten duoc su dung cac vat lieu tong hop. Tren dai chi huy cua tau duoc lap dat cac ra dar co dinh mang pha, he thong tu dong dieu khien cat cach va ha canh (JPALS), he thong dinh vi ve tinh (GPS). Boong tau – san bay duoc noi rong hon va co toi 18 vi tri nap nhien lieu va vu khi cho may bay chien dau.

- Tau san bay co kha nang mang den 90 may bay chien dau va truc thang vu trang da nhiem: may bay chien dau the he 5 F-35, may bay cuong kich danh chan F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, may bay chi huy tac chien tren khong va canh bao som E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, may bay tac chien dien tu EA-18G, may bay truc thang da nhiem MH-60R/S, dong thoi la cac may bay khong nguoi lai the he moi.

- Mot trong nhung cong nghe moi nhat duoc ap dung la may phong may bay bang hoi nuoc C-13 bang may phong may bay dien tu truong EMALS cua tap doan (General Atomics) tren co so cua dong co dien tuyen tinh. Thiet bi phong may bay nay da duoc gioi thieu tai trung tam kiem dinh va thu nghiem cac thiet bi hang khong hai quan (NASC) tai (Lakehurst, bang New Jersey ). Trong dieu kien thanh cong, may phong may bay dien tu truong se co dieu kien tang cuong kha nang dieu khien qua trinh phong, giam tai trong len may bay, cho phep may bay cat canh trong dai rong toc do va huong gio, dac biet la quy trinh phong may bay khong nguoi lai.

- Co kha nang ap dung he thong dien thuy luc can ham may bay cua Tap doan "General Atomics ". Do cang cua day cap ham duoc dieu chinh bang dong co dien, dam bao do truot cua may bay deu, giam tai dot ngot len cap, moc ham va than may bay.


So do nguon nang luong nguyen tu cho tau san bay
So do nguon nang luong nguyen tu cho tau san bay.
Lo phan ung hat nhan nuoc nang, lam mat bang nuoc bien
Lo phan ung hat nhan nuoc nang, lam mat bang nuoc bien.
Thiet ke moi lo phan ung hat nhan, lo phan ung co the lam viec khong thay the cac thanh uraniom trong vong 50 nam su dung. Day la la phan ung hat nhan khong can thay cac thanh nhien lieu trong thoi gian phuc vu cua tau san bay. Cong suat cua tram nguon hat nhan tang len 25% so voi cac lo cu, va cong phuc vu giam toi 50%.

Doi voi cac tau san bay thoi gian khai thac su dung du kien la 50 nam. Trong suot thoi gian phuc vu cua tau, theo du doan co the tham gia 3 cuoc chien tranh cuc bo lon, khoang 20 cuoc xung dot khu vuc nho hon, xuat kich khoang 500.000 may bay, hanh trinh tren bien khoang 6.000 ngay va vuot qua khoang 3 trieu hai ly. Trong suot thoi gian do se co khoang 100000 luot quan nhan phuc vu tren tau.
Thong so ky chien thuat cua tau san bay chay bang nang luong nguyen tu Gerald R.Ford (CVN-78)
Luong gian nuoc: (101.6 nghin tan.)
Kich thuoc : Dai 317 m, rong 40.8 m (khoang cach lon nhat).
Lo phan ung nang luong nguyen tu: АEU, 2 lo phan ung nang luong nguyen tu voi kha nang nang cao thoi gian su dung.
4 Dong co tuoc bin banh rang , 4 chan vit
Toc do hai trinh. 30 hai ly/gio.
Kip tau ( hai quan, luc luong khong quan hai quan, luc luong phuc vu: 4660 nguoi.
Bien che khong luc: 75 – 90 cac phuong tien bay cac loai.
He thong phao va ten lua phong khong: "He thong nang cap Sea Sparrow " hoac RIM-116 (RAM-116).
He thong phong may bay dien tu truong EMALS ( Cong ty General Atomics)
He thong thong tin lien lac va truyen thong ACDS Bloc 1 da duoc nang cap, he thong thong tin "Aejis" Mk 7, Radar mang pha bao giac АСБУ "Aegis" Mk 7 PY-1E hoac PY-1F+VSR, he thong radar dieu khien bay, he thong dan duong bay va cac thiet bi ho tro khac. .

Cac loai may bay chien dau:


May bay cuong kich danh chan F/A-18E/F Super Hornet va may bay tang hinh the he 5 F-35C.
May bay cuong kich danh chan F/A-18E/F Super Hornet va may bay tang hinh the he 5 F-35C..
X-47A may bay khong nguoi lai tang hinh cua cong ty Northrop Grumman
X-47A may bay khong nguoi lai tang hinh cua cong ty Northrop Grumman.
May bay tiem kich hai quan cung van duoc su dung la loai F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, truong hop dac biet se su dung may bay tiem kich danh chan F-14
May bay tiem kich hai quan cung van duoc su dung la loai F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, truong hop dac biet se su dung may bay tiem kich danh chan F-14.
Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi
Kha nang phong thu duong khong chu yeu dua vao he thong phao phong khong tu dong co trang bi may tinh va radar phat hien muc tieu, tan cong chu dong "Aegis", lap kem ten lua phong khong "Standart" SM-3.

May bay tac chien dien tu " Hornet " EA-18G Growler

May bay chi huy tac chien duong khong, trinh sat va canh bao som duoc su dung la E-2D Advanced Hawkeye duoc nang cap cac thiet bi trinh sat, co the xac dinh duoc cac don tan cong som tu tren khong, tren mat dat theo cac muc tieu duoc bao ve tren khong, tren dat lien va tren mat bien, dai duong.


Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi
Hoat dong chong ngam se duoc giao cho may bay truc thang cuong kich V-22 Osprey nang cap thanh SV-22 , cung voi may bay do bo duong khong va tim kiem cuu nan НV-22.


Suc manh tau san bay khung nhat the gioi
Dong thoi, luc luong hai quan My van su dung cac may bay truc thang da nhiem Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk / SH-60 Sea Hawk / S-70.

Qua trinh dong tau Gerald R.Ford se ket thuc vao nam 2015.

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