Phi co tang hinh moi cua Nga cham hon toc do am thanh

Thứ tư, 06 Tháng ba 2013, 08:37 GMT+7

PAK DA, may bay nem bom the he moi cua Nga va la san pham cua phong thiet ke Tupolev, se khong the bay voi vuot toc do am thanh vi dac tinh thiet ke uu tien kha nang tang hinh.
> May bay nem bom sieu thanh lon nhat cua Nga


Anh:
Mo hinh thiet ke may bay nem bom chien luoc tam xa PAK DA. Anh: Planespictures.com

Lanh dao Bo quoc phong Nga vua chinh thuc phe duyet thiet ke may bay nem bom chien luoc tam xa, loai se phai thay the duoc cac dong may bay nem bom hat nhan chien luoc hien tai la Tu-95MC va Tu-160.

Tat ca deu mong cho mot loai may bay sieu thanh, con ban than Pho thu tuong Nga Dmitri Rogodin noi rang van toc cua loai may bay nem bom chien luoc tam xa (PAK DA) moi se vao khoang 6.000 km/h. Nhung tu mot vai phuong an thiet ke dua ra, quan doi lai lua chon may bay tang hinh co van toc cham hon toc do am thanh.

Theo thong tin tu Bo Quoc phong, khi lua chon nhung mau thiet ke so bo thi mau tu phong thiet ke cua Tupolev da gianh chien thang – may bay dang so do “canh dong”. Voi kich thuoc canh khong lo va dac tinh ket cau, no khong the bay voi van toc tren am, nhung lai co the tang hinh doi voi radar.

Cuoc thi thiet ke duoc phat dong dau nam ngoai, ngoai phong thiet ke Tupolev con co su tham gia cua mot so phong thiet ke khac. Ho da gioi thieu mot vai thiet ke tren am va mot thiet ke sieu thanh, nhung thiet ke tang hinh doi voi radar da duoc lua chon, la mau cua Tupolev.

Hai tuan truoc do ong Rogodin, pho thu tuong phu trach quan su, noi rang PAK DA phai la sieu thanh. Theo ong, nuoc Nga can mot thiet ke khac voi B-2 cua My, mot loai may bay voi van toc lon hon 5 Max, co la khoang 6.000 km/h.

Du tinh cua Rogodin la hoan toan trai voi cac co so vat ly. Cac chuyen gia hang khong cho biet, de chuyen dong voi van toc sieu am, thiet ke can phai co hinh dang khi dong hoc ly tuong, thiet ke ngoai phai hoan toan tron tru, con de tang hinh doi voi radar thi hoan toan nguoc lai – thiet ke ngoai lai phai goc canh (nham tang tinh tan xa tin hieu tu cac dai radar).

Co the thiet ke phong to mau co san T-50 (PAK FA – may bay tiem kich the he 5 cua Nga), nhung voi hinh dang cua no neu khoi luong duoc tang len vao co khoang 120 tan thi se dan toi viec lam tang luc can khi dong va rat tieu ton nhien lieu, lam cho tam bay va cu ly hoat dong se bi han che di rat nhieu.

Ngoai ra, de bay voi van toc tren am thi dong co can rat nhieu oxy, ong hut khi can phai rong va thang. Con cac loai may bay tang hinh can ong hut khi dang chu S, de no co the giau canh dong co khoi tin hieu radar. Khong khi chuyen dong trong ong hut khi se phan tan.

De dam bao tinh tang hinh nhiet, dong co phai nam trong than may bay, giong nhu mau may bay tang hinh can am B-2 cua My. Con de bay voi van toc tren am thi can luc day rat lon, hien tai duy nhat chi co the trong cho vao dong co voi ong thoi duoc dat ngoai than may bay, giong nhu Tu-160, Concorde va B-1.

Phong thiet ke Tupolev dang hoan thien cong viec theo cac dac tinh ky-chien thuat PAK DA, vao dau nam 2014 se phai trinh bay nhu cau tai chinh. Theo ke hoach, viec san xuat hang loat chi co the bat dau som nhat vao nam 2020.

Tong bien tap bao Cat canh giai thich them rang lua chon phuong an may bay nem bom chien luoc tang hinh can am nay thuc ra khong chi co viec tang hinh ma con lien quan rat nhieu toi tinh kinh te va cu ly hoat dong duoc nang cao cua loai may bay nay.

Khi lua chon phuong an thiet ke, co the tinh toi mot vai yeu to, phu thuoc vao cac bai toan va nhung yeu cau dat ra cho loai may bay nay. O day la tam bay, tai trong va cac dac tinh ben. Viec dam bao tinh tang hinh, hien tai khong chi nho vao viec thiet ke hinh dang ket cau cua may bay, ma con tinh toi viec hap thu tin hieu radar bang vo ngoai hap thu, va cac thiet bi dien tu gay nhieu, ong nay cho biet.

Viec tang hinh tuyet doi truoc radar la hoan toan khong the, viec kha thi la lam the nao de giam nhieu nhat co the tin hieu radar phan xa tu may bay ma thoi (lam giam dien tich phan xa hieu dung cua be mat).

Neu nhu o mot so may bay tiem kich the he thu 4, dien tich nay vao khoang 3 m2 thi o cac may bay tiem kich the he thu 5 cua My lai chi con khoang 0,3 m2. O cac the he may bay tiem kich tiep theo, hy vong se giam con chi khoang vai phan tram m2.

Theo mot chuyen gia quan su tu do co ten Anton Lavrov, phuong tay (cu the la My) da khong con uu tien phat trien cac “may bay chien luoc sieu thanh” (tham chi con tu bo khai niem nay - voi trinh do ky thuat quan su hien nay). "Bay gio quan trong hon ca la cu ly hoat dong va tinh tang hinh, chu khong phai la toc do. Nuoc Nga hien co rat it dong minh tin cay va cac co so quan su lon o nuoc ngoai, nen chung ta can phai co luc luong khong quan tinh nhue, hien dai ma tu dia phan cua minh co the tieu diet duoc nhung muc tieu xa nhat co the", ong nay cho biet.

Theo y kien cua chuyen gia nay, tren con duong cua minh, cai can thiet nhat doi voi Nga khong phai la hai quan, ma la khong quan. Khong quan thuc su phai la “canh tay dai” de bao ve cac loi ich cua Nga o cac khu vuc khac nhau tren trai dat.

Du an PAK DA co the se phai tieu ton vai ty rub. Khi do viec san xuat hang loat phuc vu cho quoc phong lai bi han che o con so vai chuc chiec ma thoi, dieu nay la do may bay nem bom chien luoc nam trong Hiep uoc chung Nga-My ve viec han che vu khi tan cong, nhung viec xuat khau la khong han che.

May bay nem bom chien luoc moi se duoc trang bi khong chi ten lua mang dau dan hat nhan, ma con ten lua chinh xac cao voi dau dan chien dau thuong, ke ca bom dieu khien va roi tu do.


Anh: Opex360
Mo hinh may bay PAK DA. Anh: Opex360

Lich su phat trien cua PAK DA

Qua trinh phat trien thiet ke cua PAK DA moi co mot lich su rat thu vi. Nam 1969, thuc hien chi thi cua Bo cong nghiep hang khong Lien xo, nha may MAP da to chuc cuoc thi thiet ke may bay nem bom chien luoc tam xa, dien ra giua ba van phong thiet ke noi tieng nhat la Tupolev, Miasishev va Sukhoi.

Mua xuan nam 1972 dien ra buoi nghiem thu va lua chon phuong an chien thang tu cac mau thiet ke duoc dua den tu ba van phong thiet ke danh tieng nay: Tupolev mang den mau mang ten “160” dua tren nen Tu-144, Miasishev – “ М-20, con Sukhoi mang toi “Т-4МС”.

Thiet ke cua Tupolev khong duoc ung ho vi hoan toan khong tuong ung voi cac yeu cau dac tinh ky - chien thuat dat ra. Tham chi dai tuong – Tu lenh khong quan Lien Xo khi do con khong hai long. “Van phong thiet ke Tupolev da mang den trinh dien mot loai may bay dan dung cho khach”, ong noi. Do them dau vao lua la viec Tupolev da bao cao phong dai chat luong khi dong cua mau thiet ke nay.

Mau thiet ke “Т-4МС” gay an tuong rat tot toi hoi dong nghiem thu, no duoc danh gia la buoc dot pha trong linh vuc cong nghiep hang khong thoi ki do. Thiet ke den tu Miasishev khong duoc danh gia cao.

Ket thuc buoi nghiem thu, mau chien thang thuoc ve van phong thiet ke Sukhoi, noi co kinh nghiem san xuat T-4 truoc do. Nhung khi do Sukhoi dang vo cung vat va voi viec san xuat may bay tiem kich da chuc nang moi la T-10 (Su-27).

Cuoi cung vi Tong tu lenh Bo quoc phong Lien Xo khi do la P. S. Kutakhov dua ra quyet dinh. "Cac ban biet day, thiet ke cua Sukhoi la tot nhat, nhung hien tai Sukhoi dang phai vat lon voi viec san xuat Su-27, la loai may bay ma chung ta rat can. Chinh vi vay ma chung toi di den quyet dinh: nguoi chien thang trong cuoc thi nay la Sukhoi, nhung yeu cau Sukhoi chuyen toan bo tai lieu cho van phong thiet ke Tupolev de Tupolev thuc hien trong cac du an tuong lai …", Kutakhov cho biet.

Sau do van phong thiet ke Tupolev da khong he mang toi cac tai lieu cua T-4MC va van tiep tuc cong viec cua minh toi khi cho ra doi “Thien nga trang” – Tu-160. Voi cung mot tai trong chien dau nhu T-4MC va cung cu ly bay o van toc duoi am, Tu-160 co tai trong bay lon hon 35% va giam 2-3 lan cu ly bay neu bay toc do tren am.

Tuy cong viec thiet ke T-4MC cua Sukhoi hoan toan bi dung lai sau cuoc thi, nhung y tuong trong viec thiet ke cua no duoc su dung rat nhieu trong cac may bay hien dai hien tai cua khong quan Nga: Su-27, Mig-29, … , va se dong vai tro quan trong trong viec thiet ke cac loai may bay hien dai the ky XXI cua Nga.

Thiet ke noi danh ngay nao cua Sukhoi tuong chung nhu da di vao qua khu thi lai duoc Tupolev lam song lai, cac tong cong trinh su cua Nga dang lam song lai nhung y tuong tien phong va thanh tuu thiet ke tu thoi Xo viet. Dieu nay khong biet la minh chung cho thay han che trong viec thiet ke moi cac loai may bay nem bom chien luoc tam xa hien dai o Nga, hay no chung minh cho mot chan ly khong chi dung tren sach vo ma con dung ca trong linh vuc ky thuat quan su hien dai: "Nguoi khong hieu qua khu se khong co tuong lai". Boi le, thiet ke moi PAK DA cua Tupolev la hoan toan tuong dong voi thiet ke T-4MC cua Sukhoi ngay nao.

Trinh Thanh (Theo Izvestia, Sergib)



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