Nguyen nhan va cach phong tranh viem phoi o nguoi gia

Thứ năm, 14 Tháng ba 2013, 11:57 GMT+7

Nhung nguoi mac benh viem phoi thuong kho tho hoac tho nhanh kem theo tieng keu khe khe. Mot so phuong phap dung de chan doan benh nhu chup X quang nguc, thu dom de phat hien ra sinh vat gay benh, su dung ki thuat thu test CBC de kiem tra so luong te bao mau trang, neu cao la bi benh do vi khuan....

The nao la benh viem phoi?   

Benh viem phoi (Pneumonia) hay con co ten goi khac la benh viem phoi mang tinh tiep xuc cong dong mac phai(Community-Acquired Pneumonia); benh viem phoi khu tru hay viem phe quan-phoi (Broncho Pneumonia), day la can benh viem nhiem gay nen boi cac loai sinh vat gay benh, nhu vi khuan, virut, nam va la can benh co ti le nguoi mac rat cao, tu nhe den nang va co the gay tu vong. Muc do nang nhe con phu thuoc vao cac tac nhan gay benh, do tuoi cung nhu tinh trang suc khoe cua moi nguoi.

Viem phoi do vi-rut la dang benh nan y nhat thuong gap o nguoi cao tuoi va tre em, thu pham chinh la do virut Streptococcus pneumoniae hay con goi la vi-rut Pneumococcus. Cac loai vi-rut gay benh ve duong ho hap la nguyen nhan gay benh viem phoi nhieu nhat o nhom tre tu 2 den3 tuoi, den tuoi di hoc tre thuong bi viem phoi do vi-rut Mycoplasma pneumoniae gay ra. Trong mot so truong hop, nhat la nguoi gia, benh viem phoi thuong dien ra sau khi mac phai benh cum, cam lanh, hoac bi lay benh ngay trong benh vien, li do he mien dich cua co the suy yeu, hoac cung co truong hop viem nhiem do khuan nhon thuoc.

Dau hieu va trieu chung lam benh viem phoi

- Ho kem theo dom xanh hoac doi khi co mau;

- Sot run ray;

- Dau tuc nguc nhat la khi tho sau hay ho;

- Tho gap,tho nhanh va kho tho;

- Ngoai ra con xuat hien mot so trieu chung nhu dau dau, ra nhieu mo hoi, da tai nhot, an khong ngon mieng, met moi va neu la nguoi gia thuong xuat hien tinh trang lon xon, do dan.

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Hut thuoc la gay hai cho phoi   

Cach chan doan va dieu tri

Nhung nguoi mac benh viem phoi thuong kho tho hoac tho nhanh kem theo tieng keu khe khe. Mot so phuong phap dung de chan doan benh nhu chup X quang nguc, thu dom de phat hien ra sinh vat gay benh, su dung ki thuat thu test CBC de kiem tra so luong te bao mau trang, neu cao la bi benh do vi khuan.Thu mau de kiem tra ham luong o-xy, thu test bang ki thuat thoracic CT, su dung ki thuat quet Scan v.v...

Neu viem phoi do khuan gay ra thi co the dung khang sinh, con do vi-rut thi thuoc khang sinh se khong co tac dung,cung co truong hop rat kho phat hien giua vi-rut va vi khuan, trong truong hop nay nguoi ta thuong ke don khang sinh. Truong hop mac benh man tinh,co cac trieu chung nguy hiem hoac co ham luong o-xy trong mau thap thi nen vao vien dieu tri dung khang sinh lieu cao hoac ap dung lieu phap o-xy. Trong truong hop dieu tri o nha nen tang cuong uong nuoc de giup cho viec tho de dang, nghi ngoi va lam nhung viec nhe,su dung aspirin hoac acetaminophen de giam sot,tuyet doi khong duoc dung aspirin cho tre nho. Ke ca nguoi lon lan tre em deu co the dua vao vien de dieu tri,nhung chi nen nhap vien trong cac truong hop sau :

- Co cac dau hieu xau ve duong ho hap;

- Tho doc, kho tho, lanh run, sot lien tuc;

- Tho nhanh va dau nguc;

- Ho nhieu kem theo dom xanh den va co mau;

- Dau nguc nhat la khi ho;

- Ra nhieu mo hoi vao ban dem va sut can khong ro li do;

- Suc khoe he miem dich suy yeu nhu nguoi mac benh HIV, su dung Steroid dai ki va nhung nguoi dang trong giai doan su dung lieu phap hoa tri lieu.

Cach phong ngua

- Thuong xuyen rua tay sach se bang xa phong nhat la khi xi mui, sau khi di ve sinh tieu dai tien, truoc khi chuan bi an uong hay chuan bi thuc an.

- Khong nen hut thuoc la vi co the gay pha huy phoi, giam cac chuc nang ho hap von co cua phoi va lam tang nguy co viem nhiem va nhieu chung benh nan y khac.

- Khi lam ve sinh nha cua hoac nhung vung bui ban nen deo khau trang.

Ngoai ra, de ngan ngua nguy co mac benh viem phoi nhat la o tre em va nguoi gia, nguoi mac benh tieu duong, hen xuyen, benh tran dich phoi, benh HIV, ung thu va cac loai benh man tinh khac nen tiem phong vac-xin nhu vac-xin viem phoi Pneumovax va Prevnar, hai loai nay co tac dung phong chong vi-rut Streptococcus pneumoniae rat tot.

- Vac-xin cum co tac dung phong ngua benh viem phoi va cac chung viem nhiem gay nen boi vi-rut cum influenza. Vac-xin nay duoc tiem hang nam vi vi-rut lien tuc phat trien.

-Vac-xin Hib co tac dung phong ngua benh viem phoi o tre em,dac biet la vi-rut Haemophilus influenzae tuyp b.

Truong hop dang dieu tri tai benh vien nen tap cach tho sau, giup cho phoi lam viec tot va nhanh phuc hoi nhat la sau khi phau thuat. Ngoai ra cung co the su dung may tho de ho tro tho sau. Nhung nguoi mac benh ung thu, HIV nen tu van bac si ve cach phong benh viem phoi cho phu hop voi hoan canh cua ban than.

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VIEM PHOI

Viem phoi la mot trong nhung benh ly ve ho hap thuong gap. Benh viem phoi van co the co nhung bien chung rat nang dan toi tu vong

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