Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Thứ ba, 14 Tháng tư 2009, 15:28 GMT+7

Nhan su kien nui lua Redoubt lai phun trao, trang website khoa hoc Popsci da diem lai mot so "dia chi do" ve hoat dong dia chat trong lich su.

Nui lua Santa Maria

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Tran phun trao cua nui lua Santa Maria, cung ngon nui lua anh em cua no la Santiaguito duoc coi la mot trong nhung tran phun trao lon nhat the ky 20.

Ngon nui lua nay tung nham thach vao nam 1902, truoc do moi nguoi van nghi la no dang “ngu yen”. 20 ty m3 dat da da phun len bau troi Guatemala.

Mot phan tro bui bay den tan California, My. Ke tu do, Santa Maria duoc Hiep hoi Khoa hoc nui lua va Hoa hoc Quoc te (IAVCEI) bau chon la mot trong 16 “Ngon nui lua cua thap ky”.

Nui lua Changbai

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Nui lua Changbai (hay nui Baekdu, Bach Dau Son) la bien gioi tu nhien phan cach giua Trung Quoc voi CHDCND Trieu Tien. Ngon nui lua hoat dong lan cuoi vao nam 1903. Truoc do, dot phun trao lich su dien ra vao nam 1000 co cap do 7/8 tinh theo chi so phun trao nui lua VEI.

Crater - Ho tren mieng nui lua da tat

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

La diem nhan long lay cua Cong vien Quoc gia o Oregon, vung ho Crater thuc chat la phan con lai cua mot ngon nui lua lon co ten la Mazama.

Khoang 7.000 nam truoc day, ngon nui lua cao gan 3.352 m da co dot phun trao lon toi muc "thoi bay" 731 m chieu cao cua ca ngon nui.

Mieng nui lua Kikai

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Hien nay, tren mot quan dao o tan cung phia nam Nhat Ban, mieng nui lua Kikai co su lien ket voi bon ngon nui lua khac.

Va khi ngon nui lua lon nhat phun trao lien tuc thi nhung dot phun trao nay cung chi co quy mo nho neu so sanh voi dot phun trao dien ra vao nam 4.350 truoc cong nguyen (duoc cac nha dia chat thu thap dau vet va ket luan).

Vu no do da tao nen mot mieng nui lua rong lon, va duoc xep vao cap do 7/8 theo chi so phun trao nui lua VEI.

Nui lua Santorini

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Nui lua Santorini o Hy Lap la mot trong nhung “ngon nui lua cua thap ky” duoc to chuc IAVCEI binh chon.

Hien ngon nui toa lac tren mot quan dao giua Dia trung hai, nhung truoc do Santorini tung la mot hon dao biet lap.

Su thay doi dien ra sau dot phun trao co cap do 7/8 theo thang VEI vao nam 1610 truoc cong nguyen.

Ngoai viec anh huong toi dien mao cua tu nhien, dot phun trao cua nui Santorini con lam suy yeu nen van minh Minoan tren dao Crete va rat co the la nguon goc cua truyen thuyet ve su ton tai va bien mat cua luc dia huyen thoai Atlantic.

Nui lua Krakatoa

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Khi noi toi nhung dot phun trao nui lua noi tieng nhat tu truoc toi nay, phai ke toi dot phun trao cua nui lua Krakatoa vao thang 8/1883.

Dot phun trao da pha huy hoan toan dao quoc Indonesian. Khoi khoi bui dung nham trao ra uoc tinh co the lap kin san van dong cua DH Michigan 40.000 lan.

Nui lua Tambora

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Cung nhu nui Krakatoa, nui lua Tambora thuoc dao Indonesia ngay nay.

Nhung dau vet cua dot phun trao vao nam 1813 va dinh diem la vu no vao nam 1815 duoc xem la dot phun trao nui lua lon nhat cua ky nguyen hien dai.

Toan bo khoi bui phun len bau troi du de bao phu mot tang tro bui day 1,5 dam len toan bo dao Manhattan.

Dot phun trao da lam nhiet do toan cau giam xuong 3 do, gay ra hien tuong “mot nam khong co mua he”.

Luong thuc toan cau tro nen thieu hut khi tro bui che khuat mat troi. Mua dong nam do, tuyet nau va do da roi tren pham vi toan the gioi, va gay ra dot lanh keo dai vao nam 1815.

Ho Taupo

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Nam o New Zealand, nui lua Taupo da co hai lan phun trao o cap do 6/8 theo chi so VEI. Tuy nhien, dot phun trao cua nui lua Oruanui (gan do) cach nay 26.000 nam moi thuc su la vu khung khiep nhat.

Dot phun trao do da giai phong mot luong dung nham du de bao phu mot lop day 0,05 m len toan bo chau Au.

Dot phun trao nay lon toi muc phai mat 17.000 nam de khi hau co the tro lai trang thai truoc khi xay ra tham hoa.

Nui lua Io

Nhung nui lua dang so nhat

Tuy nhien, khong the so sanh vu phun trao nui lua lon nhat tren Trai dat voi hoat dong dia chat tuong tu tren “mat trang” cua sao Moc.

Lan quan sat dau tien duoc NASA thu nghiem voi ve tinh Voyager 1, nhung ngon nui lua tren do hoat dong du doi toi muc vo dung nham bao phu mot lop day khoang 321.870 m len be mat cua mat trang nay.

Suc manh nui lua o day la do chat long o tam mat trang luon bi xao tron manh me duoi luc hut cua sao moc.

Theo PopSci/ Dat Viet

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