Giau nhat nho ban hang re nhat

Thứ bảy, 16 Tháng sáu 2007, 07:17 GMT+7

(Ky 1): Cua hang “Nam xu va mot hao”

Thomas I. Friedman, tac gia cua The gioi phang va Chiec Lexus va cay oliu, hai cuon sach noi tieng viet ve tien trinh toan cau hoa, tung noi ve Wal-Mart: “Voi Wal-Mart, do la mot su doi moi vi dai. No khong lam nen moi thu, nhung dem nhung san pham den toan the gioi voi mot muc gia thap khong the tin duoc. Ho da lam dieu do nhu the nao? Do la mot chuoi cung cap toan cau tao nen mot hieu qua nguyen tu”.

That su Wal-Mart cua ti phu Sam Walton, nguoi sang lap Wal-Mart, da lam duoc dieu ky dieu trong kinh doanh ra sao?

Nam 1950, Sam Walton khi ay con la mot chang trai tre tran day tu tin. Hai nam sau khi trai qua thoi gian phuc vu trong quan doi, chang trai Sam Walton quyet tam kinh doanh thi truong ban le.

Vung dat dau tien ong khoi dau su nghiep cung la mong uoc cua nguoi vo: “Sam, dung bat em song tai mot thanh pho qua dong duc. 10.000 nguoi la qua du voi em roi”. Day co le la mot su sap dat san cua Thuong de cho chien luoc phat trien lau dai cua Wal-Mart sau nay: tan cong vao nhung thi truong nho le, noi cac “dai gia” di truoc da khong quan tam den.

Hoc tu tat ca moi nguoi

Vung dat dau tien ho chon la Newport, mot thi tran nho be phia dong vung Arkansas (My), noi chi co bong va duong sat voi khoang 7.000 dan. Tai day da co mot chu cua hang lam an thua lo. Nhung tin tuong vao quyet dinh cua minh, Sam do vao do 25.000 USD de mua lai, dat ten cho no la cua hang “Nam xu va mot hao” cua Walton (Walton’s Five and Dime). Cua hang nay kinh doanh that su tham bai, tien thue mat bang qua cao, doanh thu lai khong du bu vao chi phi bo ra.

Quan trong hon, ho co mot doi thu canh tranh dang gom: cua hang Sterling ben kia duong, co doanh thu gap doi cua hang cua Sam do John Dunham, mot quan ly tuyet voi (nhu loi Sam nhan xet sau nay) lam chu. Chua tung co kinh nghiem quan ly va chua tung biet ti gi ve quan ly, Sam that su kho khan trong nhung ngay dau. Tuy nhien, tu do chang trai tre rut ra mot bai hoc lon nhat doi minh: hoc tu tat ca moi nguoi!



Khau hieu cua Wal-Mart: “Gia luon re” - Anh tu lieu

Trong mot lan tra loi phong van, Sam Walton da phat bieu: “Nhung doanh nhan van dang co gang day gia len cao o bat cu mat hang nao se nhanh chong chuoc lay that bai. Boi don gian ho da khong he quan tam den khach hang va khong dat loi ich cua khach hang len tren. Ho la nhung ke tham lam va roi chac chan se bi dao thai. Chien luoc buon ban cua chung toi la thu hut khach hang bang cach ban cho ho hang hoa co chat luong cao nhat voi gia thap nhat co the. No da co hieu qua. Tham chi rat it nguoi trong so chung toi tin tuong vao y tuong nay ngay khi moi khoi nghiep. Vay ma ho da dau tu vao no va tro nen noi tieng”.


Thoi gian dau Sam luon “to mo” nhin qua cua hang ben kia pho. Ong hoc hoi tat ca: bang gia, cach xep hang va tat ca nhung viec dang dien ra o do va ve ap dung cho tot hon. Mui dot pha dau tien Sam ap dung la viec tim cach mua lai nhung san pham cua nha phan phoi nao ban re nhat de co the khuyen mai, giam gia cho cua hang minh. Nam dau tien, cua hang dat doanh thu 105.000 USD (so voi 72.000 USD cua chu cu), nam sau la 140.000 USD va roi 175.000 USD. Cuoi cung, Sam vuot qua mat “ong gia” John Dunham. Va ong co mot niem tin chac chan: kinh doanh ha gia la con duong cua tuong lai.

Cua hang thu hai ma Sam Walton gay dung nen nam tai Bentonville, mot thi tran chi co khoang 3.000 dan. No cung duoc mang ten “Nam xu va mot hao”, chuyen kinh doanh bong bay cho tre em, cap phoi quan ao, che... va moi thu nhu yeu pham can thiet khac. Day la mot cua hang tu phuc vu thu ba tren toan nuoc My, noi khong co hinh anh nhan vien va may dem tien nhu nhung cua hang xua cu. Chi co mot may tinh tien tu dong dat tai quay.

Cho den tan cuoi doi, Sam van con nho nhu in va thuong nhac lai cau chuyen khi bat dau mo mot cua hang tai Bentonville. Khi den day, tinh co Sam nghe duoc cau chuyen cua hai cu gia. Ho ca rang trong vong 60 ngay, cua hang nay se phai “sap tiem” nhu nhung cua hang tung mo ra roi “chet yeu” truoc do. “Mot cua hang giam gia ton tai o mot thi tran nho nay u? That la mot tro dua”. Neu muon thanh cong nhu Wal-Mart, Sam dua ra loi khuyen la: chap nhan nhung loi giem pha, che gieu va di theo con duong ban cho la dung dan nhat. Ket qua se chung minh va thuyet phuc tat ca moi nguoi.

Cua hang nay cung tiep tuc lam an phat dat. Sam quyet dinh mo them mot so cua hang tai Fayette, Tennessee, Kansas... Tat ca cua hang nay deu mang ten “Nam xu va mot hao”.

Ban re hon toi muc co the



Cua hang “Nam xu va mot hao” thu hai cua Wal-Mart ra doi tu thap ky 1950 den nay van con hoat dong tai Bentonville (Arkansas, My) - Anh tu lieu
Sam Walton tiep tuc mo rong dia ban tai nhung thi tran nho tuong tu cung voi phuong thuc tu phuc vu. Den nam 1960, Sam da co tat ca 15 cua hang moc len khap noi tren dat My. Duoi bang hieu Wal-Mart, co hai dong chu sau nay tro thanh phuong cach lam viec noi tieng: “Chung toi ban voi gia thap hon” va “Dam bao thoa man khach hang”. Trong cuoc doi kinh doanh song gio cua minh, Sam van giu vung phuong cham ay.

Nam 1962 la nam cua nganh cong nghiep giam gia. Chien luoc Wal-Mart deo duoi chi moi that su bat dau. Thoi diem nay, bon cong ty bat dau mo chuoi cua hang ban giam gia va chay dua nhau quyet liet: S.S.Kresge mo Kmart, F.W.Woolco mo Woolco, D.Hudson mo Target, va vai ca nhan doc lap o thi tran Rogers mo cai goi la Wal-Mart. Trong bon cai ten neu tren vao thoi diem do, Wal-Mart la cai ten khong may nguoi biet den. Nhung 30 nam sau, doi thu truc tiep cua Wal-Mart chi con lai Kmart. Thoi gian ngan sau, Kmart cung “sap tiem”.


Han bat cu ai ngoi thong ke lai chang duong phat trien cua Wal-Mart deu cam thay giat minh boi toc do tien xa qua nhanh cua no. Viec nay bat nguon tu mot chien luoc khon ngoan ma Sam Walton ap dung cho con duong di cua minh: “Chiem linh toan bo thi truong bang cach trai rong, sau do tim cach lap day”. Su thanh cong tai ba cua hang Wal-Mart dau tien giup Sam Walton co mot niem tin chac chan rang con duong kinh doanh cua minh dang di dung huong.

Do la: tan cong vao nhung khu dan cu nho be, it nguoi, chang co “dai gia ban le” nao them quan tam den. Dieu nay co ve nhu mot nghich ly di nguoc lai phuong cach kinh doanh thong thuong: phat trien tai thanh pho lon, sau do mo rong ra cac thi tran tinh le. Mot nguyen do nua la Wal-Mart cu tien buoc deu dan voi phuong cham bat di bat dich cua minh: ban re hon toi muc co the.

Wal-Mart bat dau chiem linh duoc vung tay bac Arkansas, roi tien den Oklahoma, Missouri, tan cong tu Neosho den Monett va Aurora, Nevada va Belton... va cu the tiep tuc, tiep tuc. O bat cu noi dau, Wal-Mart deu tien nhung buoc cham rai va chac chan, dan thiet lap mot vanh dai gom cac cua hang bao quanh thanh pho, cho doi cho den khi thanh pho phat trien den tan noi.

Chien luoc khon ngoan nay phat huy hieu qua thuc te tai moi luc moi noi. Mot diem manh khac cua viec lam nay la so tien do vao quang cao khong nhieu. Khi mot cua hang moc len tai nong thon, tin don se truyen tai nhau het suc nhanh chong. Wal-Mart khong can thiet tim moi cach de quang ba tam anh huong cua minh. Chi can phat to roi quang cao hang thang, suc lay dong da lan den nhung noi heo lanh nhat. Gio day, Wal-Mart lai tro thanh doi thu canh tranh cua chinh minh!

PACE bien soan

________________________

Dieu am anh lon nhat cho Sam Walton da den gan. Cac khoan no vay muon da len toi 2 trieu USD. Sam khong the kiem du loi nhuan de vua co the tra no, vua co the mo rong kinh doanh... Mot quyet dinh moi duoc dua ra.

Ky toi:Vuot thac

Trich tu sach Sam Walton va Wal-Mart: Giau nhat nho ban hang re nhat, NXB Tre va PACE xuat ban thang 5-2007.

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