Tranh chap nha dat moi noi ap luat rieng

Thứ ba, 20 Tháng chín 2011, 15:12 GMT+7

Deu la tranh chap hop dong mua ban nha nhung tai TP HCM, toa an quan 12 lai ap dung bo luat Dan su, con toa an huyen Hoc Mon lai ap dung Luat Nha o khien su viec tro nen lon xon.

Muon mua mot can nha, co le xac dinh thoi diem nguoi mua lam chu so huu can nha do khong kho theo thong le phap luat: tra tien, nhan nha, nop thue phi, nhan so do, hong moi. Dieu tuong de va thong nhat hoa ra lai dang bat nhat khi phap luat duoc ap dung, dac biet khi xay ra tranh chap, rui ro...

Tranh chap nha dat moi noi ap luat rieng

Viec xac lap chu so huu khi mua ban nha dang bat nhat khi phap luat

duoc ap dung, dac biet khi xay ra tranh chap, rui ro...  Moi noi mot phach

Dieu 439 bo luat Dan su nam 2005 quy dinh “doi voi tai san mua ban ma phap luat quy dinh phai dang ky quyen so huu, quyen so huu duoc chuyen cho ben mua ke tu thoi diem hoan thanh thu tuc dang ky quyen so huu doi voi tai san do”. The nhung, mot thuc te dang dien ra khong giong nhu vay, ke tu khi co luat Nha o nam 2005. Hai tranh chap sau day la mot thi du.

Hon hai nam truoc, ba Dinh Thi Thuy Tien (phuong Thanh Loc, quan 12) co thoa thuan mua cua vo chong ong Doan Quoc Thanh – Pham Thi Ngoc Yen mot can nha tai phuong Tan Thoi Nhat, quan 12. Sau khi giao cho ben ban 300 trieu dong, hai ben hen trong vong mot thang ben ban phai hoan tat thu tuc sang ten (dang bo), ben mua tra not 400 trieu dong va lay nha.
Ben ban da boi uoc, ngay sau khi nhan 300 trieu dong, ong Thanh, ba Yen da ban luon can nha cho nguoi thu ba voi gia cao hon, 760 trieu dong. Ke mua nguoi ban hoan tat thu tuc mua ban can nha tai mot phong cong chung. Ba Tien hay chuyen, khoi kien ra toa an nhan dan quan 12 va de nghi toa ap dung bien phap khan cap tam thoi theo bo luat Dan su la cam chuyen dich quyen can nha tren.
Mot phan cua an so tham tuyen van tiep tuc duy tri bien phap ke bien de dam bao thi hanh an. Ngay lap tuc, ban an so tham bi vien kiem sat nhan dan quan 12 khang nghi vi cho rang, nguoi thu ba da la chu so huu hop phap can nha tren theo luat Nha o ke tu khi hop dong mua ban giua vo chong ong Thanh va nguoi thu ba duoc cong chung. Toa khong co quyen ke bien.
Mot chuyen khac, sau khi vay no va huy dong tien bang hinh thuc choi hui voi nhieu nguoi, vai thang qua, ba Nguyen Thi Tam o xa Ba Diem, Hoc Mon da di khoi dia phuong va ban nha cua minh cho nguoi em. Hop dong mua ban nha cung duoc cong chung. Khi cac chu no nop don kien va de nghi ke bien can nha nay, toa an nhan dan huyen Hoc Mon da khong chap nhan vi theo quan diem cua nguoi thu ly, can nha da la cua nguoi khac theo luat Nha o. Thanh thu nguy co thu hoi no cua hang chuc con no tro nen xa voi.
Chi moi qua hai cau chuyen hop dong mua ban nha, toa quan 12 dung bo luat Dan su, toa huyen Hoc Mon dung luat Nha o, da thay moi noi ap dung phap luat moi kieu.
Tuy tien tu luat

Theo bo luat Dan su 2005, doi voi tai san mua ban, phap luat quy dinh phai dang ky quyen so huu (nhu nha, dat), thoi diem chuyen quyen so huu duoc tinh ke tu khi ben mua hoan thanh thu tuc dang ky quyen so huu doi voi tai san do. Them nua, luat Dat dai nam 2003 quy dinh: “Trong thoi han khong qua 15 ngay lam viec, ke tu ngay nhan du ho so hop le, van phong dang ky quyen su dung dat co trach nhiem tham tra ho so, gui ho so cho co quan quan ly dat dai thuoc UBND cap co tham quyen cap giay chung nhan quyen su dung dat de lam thu tuc cap giay chung nhan quyen su dung dat… Trong thoi gian khong qua nam ngay lam viec, ke tu ngay thuc hien xong nghia vu tai chinh, cac ben tham gia chuyen nhuong quyen su dung dat nhan giay chung nhan quyen su dung dat tai noi da nop ho so”.
Tuy nhien, theo luat Nha o nam 2005 lai khong phai nhu vay. Dieu 93 luat Nha o quy dinh: thoi diem chuyen quyen so huu nha ke tu khi hop dong mua ban duoc cong chung, chung thuc. Nghi dinh cua Chinh phu huong dan thi hanh luat Nha o cung khong khac: “Thoi diem chuyen quyen so huu nha o doi voi truong hop mua ban nha o tinh tu ngay hop dong mua ban nha o duoc cong chung hoac chung thuc”.
Thuc te muon di dang bo, nguoi mua va nguoi ban phai nop thue thu nhap va le phi truoc ba. Vi vay, thoi gian tu khi cong chung den luc hoan tat thu tuc sang ten nhanh nhat cung nua thang. Nhu vay, thoi gian tu luc ky hop dong cong chung den dang ky quyen so huu (dang bo) da co “khoang trong phap luat”, theo mot luat su, do cac quy dinh phap luat xung dot nhau. Do la chua noi den viec dang bo de cap xa va trung tam dang ky quyen su dung dat (thuoc cap huyen) kiem tra lai tinh phap ly cua can nha (co tranh chap, dung hien trang, quy hoach... hay khong).
Mot cai vuong nua, doi voi co quan thi hanh an, viec ke bien tai san de dam bao nghia vu thi hanh an va xac dinh chu so huu nha – dat o thoi diem ke bien rat can thiet. Neu khi ke bien, phat hien truoc do chu nha tuy da ky hop dong ban cho nguoi khac, nhung can cu vao bo luat Dan su va luat Dat dai, nha van thuoc quyen so huu cua nguoi phai thi hanh an, co quan thi hanh an duoc quyen ke bien, phat mai can nha. The nhung, theo luat Nha o thi nha da thuoc quyen so huu cua nguoi mua, co quan thi hanh an khong co quyen vi ke bien nguoi mua khieu nai; khong ke bien nguoi duoc thi hanh an khieu nai.


"Xai" luat nao?
Khi cac quy dinh phap luat “choi” nhau, theo quy dinh phai dung luat Ban hanh van ban quy pham phap luat de chon luat nao xu ly. Mot nguyen tac, neu cac van ban luat co mau thuan se ap dung van ban co gia tri cao hon, hoac cac van ban luat co gia tri ngang nhau thi ap dung van ban duoc ban hanh sau. Nhu vay, tinh theo thoi gian, luat Nha o duoc ban hanh sau (nam 2005) bo luat Dan su, mat khac, bo luat Dan su co gia tri cao nhat. Vi vay, phai ap dung bo luat Dan su.
Truoc tinh trang ap dung luat loan xa nay, mot tham phan o TP.HCM cho biet, nguyen tac, van ban luat ra doi sau can ra soat cac quy dinh cua van ban truoc do de khong mau thuan, xung dot. Khong de tinh trang luat Nha o duoc thong qua sau bo luat Dan su chi nua nam, nhung da co quy dinh treo ngoe voi bo luat Dan su. Dieu nua, neu luat ro rang, thong nhat moi minh bach khi ap dung va khong con chuyen “duoc” lua chon van ban luat de ap dung theo huong minh muon, hay tranh cai khong hoi ket giua cac co quan cong quyen.

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